Die fünf Aspekte der Scharia und die Menschenrechte : die Auslegung des Koran auf neuen Wegen
- Auch der Koran ist das Werk seiner Zeit; heute kann er nicht ausgelegt werden, ohne seinen historischen Kontext einzubeziehen. Doch noch dominiert ein starres Verständnis des Koran, das den eigentlichen Charakter des religiösen Textes verkennt. Eine kleine, international etablierte Gruppe von islamischen Theologen postuliert eine zeitgenössische innovative Koranexegese, die berücksichtigt, dass die Worte des Koran als eine lebendige Anrede an seine realen Adressaten in Offenbarungszeit und -ort gerichtet waren, nämlich an den Propheten Muhammad, seine Gefährten, die heidnischen Araber, Juden und Christen. So eröffnet sich ein neuer Blick auf die »heilige Schrift« der Muslime.
Hazar Lake sunken city
The wells, subterranean passage, tunnels and water systems of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
- In November 2005, a survey was begun of the wells in and around Hagia Sophia Church in Istanbul. The long-term goal of the survey is the understanding of the function of the tunnels and the water systems used for Hagia Sophia and its surroundings during the Byzantine and the Ottoman periods. Alternate research methods, such as geophysical research, will be used in future surveys. The 2005 survey examined the channels that run from under the narthex and continue northwards and the southwards of the building as well as channels that run towards the atrium, hippodrome, and garden in the north. The survey resulted in the first photos of the well-bottoms in the history of Hagia Sophia.
Particle ratios from AGS to RHIC in an interacting hadronic model
- Abstract: The measured particle ratios in central heavy-ion collisions at RHIC-BNL are investigated within a chemical and thermal equilibrium chiral SU(3) Ã É approach. The commonly adopted non-interacting gas calculations yield temperatures close to or above the critical temperature for the chiral phase transition, but without taking into account any interactions. In contrast, the chiral SU(3) model predicts temperature and density dependent effective hadron masses and effective chemical potentials in the medium and a transition to a chirally restored phase at high temperatures or chemical potentials. Three different parametrizations of the model, which show different types of phase transition behaviour, are investigated. We show that if a chiral phase transition occured in those collisions, freezing of the relative hadron abundances in the symmetric phase is excluded by the data. Therefore, either very rapid chemical equilibration must occur in the broken phase, or the measured hadron ratios are the outcome of the dynamical symmetry breaking. Furthermore, the extracted chemical freeze-out parameters differ considerably from those obtained in simple non-interacting gas calculations. In particular, the three models yield up to 35 MeV lower temperatures than the free gas approximation. The inmedium masses turn out to differ up to 150 MeV from their vacuum values.
Klaus Ulrich Leistikow : Nachruf
Wissenskulturen, Wissensgeschichte und historische Epistemologie
PaCATB : a secreted catalase protecting Podospora anserina against exogenous oxidative stress
Heinz D. Osiewacz
- A differential mass spectrometry analysis of secreted proteins from juvenile and senescentPodospora anserina cultures revealed age-related differences in protein profiles. Among other proteins with decreased abundance in the secretome of senescent cultures a catalase, termed PaCATB, was identified. Genetic modulation of the abundance of PaCATB identified differential effects on the phenotype of the corresponding strains. Deletion of PaCatB resulted in decreased resistance, over-expression in increased resistance against hydrogen peroxide. While the lifespan of the genetically modified strains was found to be unaffected under standard growth conditions, increased exogenous hydrogen peroxide stress in the growth medium markedly reduced the lifespan of the PaCatB deletion strain but extended the lifespan of PaCatB over-expressors. Overall our data identify a component of the secretome of P. anserina as a new effective factor to cope with environmental stress, stress that under natural conditions is constantly applied on organisms and influences aging processes.
A novel, non-invasive, online-monitoring, versatile and easy plant-based probe for measuring leaf water status
Matthias Wolf Bauer
- A high-precision pressure probe is described which allows non-invasive online-monitoring of the water relations of intact leaves. Real-time recording of the leaf water status occurred by data transfer to an Internet server. The leaf patch clamp pressure probe measures the attenuated pressure, Pp, of a leaf patch in response to a constant clamp pressure, Pclamp. Pp is sensed by a miniaturized silicone pressure sensor integrated into the device. The magnitude of Pp is dictated by the transfer function of the leaf, Tf, which is a function of leaf patch volume and ultimately of cell turgor pressure, Pc, as shown theoretically. The power function Tf=f(Pc) theoretically derived was experimentally confirmed by concomitant Pp and Pc measurements on intact leaflets of the liana Tetrastigma voinierianum under greenhouse conditions. Simultaneous Pp recordings on leaflets up to 10 m height above ground demonstrated that changes in Tf induced by Pc changes due to changes of microclimate and/or of the irrigation regime were sensitively reflected in corresponding changes of Pp. Analysis of the data show that transpirational water loss during the morning hours was associated with a transient rise in turgor pressure gradients within the leaflets. Subsequent recovery of turgescence during the afternoon was much faster than the preceding transpiration-induced water loss if the plants were well irrigated. Our data show the enormous potential of the leaf patch clamp pressure probe for leaf water studies including unravelling of the hydraulic communication between neighbouring leaves and over long distances within tall plants (trees).
Do listeners recover "deleted" final /t/ in German?
- Reduction and deletion processes occur regularly in conversational speech. A segment that is affected by such reduction and deletion processes in many Germanic languages (e.g., Dutch, English, German) is /t/. There are similarities concerning the factors that influence the likelihood of final /t/ to get deleted, such as segmental context. However, speakers of different languages differ with respect to the acoustic cues they leave in the speech signal when they delete final /t/. German speakers usually lengthen a preceding /s/ when they delete final /t/. This article investigates to what extent German listeners are able to reconstruct /t/ when they are presented with fragments of words where final /t/ has been deleted. It aims also at investigating whether the strategies that are used by German depend on the length of /s/, and therefore whether listeners are using language-specific cues. Results of a forced-choice segment detection task suggest that listeners are able to reconstruct deleted final /t/ in about 45% of the times. The length of /s/ plays some role in the reconstruction, however, it does not explain the behavior of German listeners completely.
Influence of a six month endurance exercise program on the immune function of prostate cancer patients undergoing Antiandrogen or Chemotherapy: design and rationale of the ProImmun study
Eva Maria Zopf
Freerk T. Baumann
- Background: Exercise seems to minimize prostate cancer specific mortality risk and treatment related side effects like fatigue and incontinence. However the influence of physical activity on the immunological level remains uncertain. Even prostate cancer patients undergoing palliative treatment often have a relatively long life span compared to other cancer entities. To optimize exercise programs and their outcomes it is essential to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Further, it is important to discriminate between different exercise protocols and therapy regimes.
Methods/Design: The ProImmun study is a prospective multicenter patient preference randomized controlled trial investigating the influence of a 24 week endurance exercise program in 80–100 prostate cancer patients by comparing patients undergoing Antiandrogen therapy combined with exercise (AE), Antiandrogen therapy without exercise (A), Chemotherapy with exercise(CE) or Chemotherapy without exercise (C). The primary outcome of the study is a change in prostate cancer relevant cytokines and hormones (IL-6, MIF, IGF-1, Testosterone). Secondary endpoints are immune cell ratios, oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity levels, VO2 peak, fatigue and quality of life. Patients of the intervention group exercise five times per week, while two sessions are supervised. During the supervised sessions patients (AE and CE) exercise for 33 minutes on a bicycle ergometer at 70-75% of their VO2 peak. To assess long term effects and sustainability of the intervention two follow-up assessments are arranged 12 and 18 month after the intervention.
Discussion: The ProImmun study is the first trial which primarily investigates immunological effects of a six month endurance exercise program in prostate cancer patients during palliative care. Separating patients treated with Antiandrogen therapy from those who are additionally treated with Chemotherapy might allow a more specific view on the influence of endurance training interventions and the impact of different therapy protocols on the immune function.
Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004739