How can we explore the onset of deconfinement by experiment?
- There is little doubt that Quantumchromodynamics (QCD) is the theory which describes strong interaction physics. Lattice gauge simulations of QCD predict that in the m,T plane there is a line where a transition from confined hadronic matter to deconfined quarks takes place. The transition is either a cross over (at low m) or of first order (at high m). It is the goal of the present and future heavy ion experiment at RHIC and FAIR to study this phase transition at different locations in the m,T plane and to explore the properties of the deconfined phase. It is the purpose of this contribution to discuss some of the observables which are considered as useful for this purpose.
Strong coupling expansion for Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature
- Euclidean strong coupling expansion of the partition function is applied to lattice Yang-Mills theory
at finite temperature, i.e. for lattices with a compactified temporal direction. The expansions
have a finite radius of convergence and thus are valid only for b <bc, where bc denotes the nearest
singularity of the free energy on the real axis. The accessible temperature range is thus the
confined regime up to the deconfinement transition. We have calculated the first few orders of
these expansions of the free energy density as well as the screening masses for the gauge groups
SU(2) and SU(3). The resulting free energy series can be summed up and corresponds to a glueball
gas of the lowest mass glueballs up to the calculated order. Our result can be used to fix
the lower integration constant for Monte Carlo calculations of the thermodynamic pressure via
the integral method, and shows from first principles that in the confined phase this constant is
indeed exponentially small. Similarly, our results also explain the weak temperature dependence
of glueball screening masses below Tc, as observed in Monte Carlo simulations. Possibilities and
difficulties in extracting bc from the series are discussed.
Twisted mass QCD at finite temperature
Maria Paola Lombardo
- We discuss the use of Wilson fermions with twisted mass for simulations of QCD thermodynamics.
As a prerequisite for a future analysis of the finite-temperature transition making use
of automatic O(a) improvement, we investigate the phase structure in the space spanned by the
hopping parameter k , the coupling b , and the twisted mass parameter m. We present results for
Nf = 2 degenerate quarks on a 163×8 lattice, for which we investigate the possibility of an Aoki
phase existing at strong coupling and vanishing m, as well as of a thermal phase transition at
moderate gauge couplings and non-vanishing m.
Exploring the QCD phase diagram
- Lattice simulations employing reweighting and Taylor expansion techniques have predicted a
(m;T)-phase diagram according to general expectations, with an analytic quark-hadron crossover
at m =0 turning into a first order transition at some critical chemical potential mE. By contrast, recent
simulations using imgainary m followed by analytic continuation obtained a critical structure
in the fmu;d;ms;T;mg parameter space favouring the absence of a critical point and first order line.
I review the evidence for the latter scenario, arguing that the various raw data are not inconsistent
with each other. Rather, the discrepancy appears when attempting to extract continuum results
from the coarse (Nt =4) lattices simulated so far, and can be explained by cut-off effects. New (as
yet unpublished) data are presented, which for Nf = 3 and on Nt = 4 confirm the scenario without
a critical point. Moreover, simulations on finer Nt = 6 lattices show that even if there is a critical
point, continuum extrapolation moves it to significantly larger values of mE than anticipated on
Status and promise of particle interferometry in heavy-ion collisions
John G. Cramer
Michael A. Lisa
Sandra S. Padula
Bernardo M. Tavares
- After five years of running at RHIC, and on the eve of the LHC heavy-ion program, we highlight the status of femtoscopic measurements. We emphasize the role interferometry plays in addressing fundamental questions about the state of matter created in such collisions, and present an enumerated list of measurements, analyses and calculations that are needed to advance the field in the coming years.
Fermionic fields in the pseudoparticle approach
- The pseudoparticle approach is a numericalmethod to compute path integralswithout discretizing
spacetime. The basic idea is to consider only those field configurations, which can be represented
as a linear superposition of a small number of localized building blocks (pseudoparticles), and to
replace the functional integration by an integration over the pseudoparticle degrees of freedom. In
previous papers we have successfully applied the pseudoparticle approach to SU(2) Yang-Mills
theory. In this work we discuss the inclusion of fermionic fields in the pseudoparticle approach.
To test our method, we compute the phase diagram of the 1+1-dimensional Gross-Neveu model
in the large-N limit as well as the chiral condensate in the crystal phase.
Fluctuations in statistical models
Mark I. Gorenstein
- Proceedings of 4th International Workshop "Critical Point and Onset of Deconfinement", July 9-13, 2007, Darmstadt, Germany: The multiplicity fluctuations of hadrons are studied within the statistical hadron-resonance gas model in the large volume limit. The role of quantum statistics and resonance decay effects are discussed. The microscopic correlator method is used to enforce conservation of three charges - baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness - in the canonical ensemble. In addition, in the micro-canonical ensemble energy conservation is included. An analytical method is used to account for resonance decays. The multiplicity distributions and the scaled variances for negatively and positively charged hadrons are calculated for the sets of thermodynamical parameters along the chemical freeze-out line of central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions from SIS to LHC energies. Predictions obtained within different statistical ensembles are compared with the preliminary NA49 experimental results on central Pb+Pb collisions in the SPS energy range. The measured fluctuations are significantly narrower than the Poisson ones and clearly favor expectations for the micro-canonical ensemble. Thus, this is a first observation of the recently predicted suppression of the multiplicity fluctuations in relativistic gases in the thermodynamical limit due to conservation laws.
Parton recombination and fluctuations of conserved charges
- We study various fluctuation and correlation signals of the deconfined state using a dynamical recombination approach (quark Molecular Dynamics, qMD). We analyse charge ratio fluctuations, charge transfer fluctuations and baryon-strangeness correlations as a function of the center of mass energy with a set of central Pb+Pb/Au+Au events from AGS energies on (Elab = 4 AGeV) up to the highest RHIC energy available (V sNN = 200 GeV) and as a function of time with a set of central Au+Au qMD events at V sNN = 200 GeV with and without applying our hadronization procedure. For all studied quantities, the results start from values compatible with a weakly coupled QGP in the early stage and end with values compatible with the hadronic result in the final state. We show that the loss of the signal occurs at the same time as hadronization and trace it back to the dynamical recombination process implemented in our model.
Collapse of flow: probing the order of the phase transition
- We discuss the present collective flow signals for the phase transition to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) and the collective flow as a barometer for the equation of state (EoS). We emphasize the importance of the flow excitation function from 1 to 50A GeV: here the hydrodynamicmodel has predicted the collapse of the v1-flow at ~ 10A GeV and of the v2-flow at ~ 40A GeV. In the latter case, this has recently been observed by the NA49 collaboration. Since hadronic rescattering models predict much larger flow than observed at this energy, we interpret this observation as potential evidence for a first order phase transition at high baryon density pB.
An introduction to mini black holes at LHC
- Relying on the existing estimates for the production cross sections of mini black holes in models with large extra dimensions, we review strategies for identifying those objects at collider experiments. We further consider a possible stable final state of such black holes and discuss their characteristic signatures. Keywords: Black holes