## Universitätspublikationen

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- Informatik (253) (remove)

- Nonlinear feature selection using the general mutual information (2008)
- In the context of information theory, the term Mutual Information has first been formulated by Claude Elwood Shannon. Information theory is the consistent mathematical description of technical communication systems. To this day, it is the basis of numerous applications in modern communications engineering and yet became indispensable in this field. This work is concerned with the development of a concept for nonlinear feature selection from scalar, multivariate data on the basis of the mutual information. From the viewpoint of modelling, the successful construction of a realistic model depends highly on the quality of the employed data. In the ideal case, high quality data simply consists of the relevant features for deriving the model. In this context, it is important to possess a suitable method for measuring the degree of the, mostly nonlinear, dependencies between input- and output variables. By means of such a measure, the relevant features could be specifically selected. During the course of this work, it will become evident that the mutual information is a valuable and feasible measure for this task and hence the method of choice for practical applications. Basically and without the claim of being exhaustive, there are two possible constellations that recommend the application of feature selection. On the one hand, feature selection plays an important role, if the computability of a derived system model cannot be guaranteed, due to a multitude of available features. On the other hand, the existence of very few data points with a significant number of features also recommends the employment of feature selection. The latter constellation is closely related to the so called "Curse of Dimensionality". The actual statement behind this is the necessity to reduce the dimensionality to obtain an adequate coverage of the data space. In other word, it is important to reduce the dimensionality of the data, since the coverage of the data space exponentially decreases, for a constant number of data points, with the dimensionality of the available data. In the context of mapping between input- and output space, this goal is ideally reached by selecting only the relevant features from the available data set. The basic idea for this work has its origin in the rather practical field of automotive engineering. It was motivated by the goals of a complex research project in which the nonlinear, dynamic dependencies among a multitude of sensor signals should be identified. The final goal of such activities was to derive so called virtual sensors from identified dependencies among the installed automotive sensors. This enables the real-time computability of the required variable without the expenses of additional hardware. The prospect of doing without additional computing hardware is a strong motive force in particular in automotive engineering. In this context, the major problem was to find a feasible method to capture the linear- as well as the nonlinear dependencies. As mentioned before, the goal of this work is the development of a flexibly applicable system for nonlinear feature selection. The important point here is to guarantee the practicable computability of the developed method even for high dimensional data spaces, which are rather realistic in technical environments. The employed measure for the feature selection process is based on the sophisticated concept of mutual information. The property of the mutual information, regarding its high sensitivity and specificity to linear- and nonlinear statistical dependencies, makes it the method of choice for the development of a highly flexible, nonlinear feature selection framework. In addition to the mere selection of relevant features, the developed framework is also applicable for the nonlinear analysis of the temporal influences of the selected features. Hence, a subsequent dynamic modelling can be performed more efficiently, since the proposed feature selection algorithm additionally provides information about the temporal dependencies between input- and output variables. In contrast to feature extraction techniques, the developed feature selection algorithm in this work has another considerable advantage. In the case of cost intensive measurements, the variables with the highest information content can be selected in a prior feasibility study. Hence, the developed method can also be employed to avoid redundance in the acquired data and thus prevent for additional costs.

- A finite simulation method in a non-deterministic call-by-need calculus with letrec, constructors and case (2008)
- The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus' semantics is based on a small-step rewrite semantics and on may-convergence. The cyclic nature of letrec bindings, as well as non-determinism, makes known approaches to prove that simulation implies contextual equivalence, such as Howe's proof technique, inapplicable in this setting. The basic technique for the simulation as well as the correctness proof is called pre-evaluation, which computes a set of answers for every closed expression. If simulation succeeds in finite computation depth, then it is guaranteed to show contextual preorder of expressions.

- Adequacy of compositional translations for observational semantics (2008)
- We investigate methods and tools for analysing translations between programming languages with respect to observational semantics. The behaviour of programs is observed in terms of may- and must-convergence in arbitrary contexts, and adequacy of translations, i.e., the reﬂection of program equivalence, is taken to be the fundamental correctness condition. For compositional translations we propose a notion of convergence equivalence as a means for proving adequacy. This technique avoids explicit reasoning about contexts, and is able to deal with the subtle role of typing in implementations of language extension.

- On equivalences and standardization in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus (2007)
- The goal of this report is to prove correctness of a considerable subset of transformations w.r.t. contextual equivalence in a an extended lambda-calculus with case, constructors, seq, let, and choice, with a simple set of reduction rules. Unfortunately, a direct proof appears to be impossible. The correctness proof is by defining another calculus comprising the complex variants of copy, case-reduction and seq-reductions that use variablebinding chains. This complex calculus has well-behaved diagrams and allows a proof that of correctness of transformations, and also that the simple calculus defines an equivalent contextual order.

- Probabilistic and nondeterministic unary automata (2003)
- We investigate unary regular languages and compare deterministic finite automata (DFA’s), nondeterministic finite automata (NFA’s) and probabilistic finite automata (PFA’s) with respect to their size. Given a unary PFA with n states and an e-isolated cutpoint, we show that the minimal equivalent DFA has at most n exp 1/2e states in its cycle. This result is almost optimal, since for any alpha < 1 a family of PFA’s can be constructed such that every equivalent DFA has at least n exp alpha/2e states. Thus we show that for the model of probabilistic automata with a constant error bound, there is only a polynomial blowup for cyclic languages. Given a unary NFA with n states, we show that efficiently approximating the size of a minimal equivalent NFA within the factor sqrt(n)/ln n is impossible unless P = NP. This result even holds under the promise that the accepted language is cyclic. On the other hand we show that we can approximate a minimal NFA within the factor ln n, if we are given a cyclic unary n-state DFA.

- On dynamic breadth-first search in external-memory (2008)
- We provide the first non-trivial result on dynamic breadth-first search (BFS) in external-memory: For general sparse undirected graphs of initially $n$ nodes and O(n) edges and monotone update sequences of either $\Theta(n)$ edge insertions or $\Theta(n)$ edge deletions, we prove an amortized high-probability bound of $O(n/B^{2/3}+\sort(n)\cdot \log B)$ I/Os per update. In contrast, the currently best approach for static BFS on sparse undirected graphs requires $\Omega(n/B^{1/2}+\sort(n))$ I/Os. 1998 ACM Subject Classification: F.2.2. Key words and phrases: External Memory, Dynamic Graph Algorithms, BFS, Randomization.

- Correctness of copy in calculi with letrec, case and constructors (2007)
- Call-by-need lambda calculi with letrec provide a rewritingbased operational semantics for (lazy) call-by-name functional languages. These calculi model the sharing behavior during evaluation more closely than let-based calculi that use a fixpoint combinator. In a previous paper we showed that the copy-transformation is correct for the small calculus LR-Lambda. In this paper we demonstrate that the proof method based on a calculus on infinite trees for showing correctness of instantiation operations can be extended to the calculus LRCC-Lambda with case and constructors, and show that copying at compile-time can be done without restrictions. We also show that the call-by-need and call-by-name strategies are equivalent w.r.t. contextual equivalence. A consequence is correctness of all the transformations like instantiation, inlining, specialization and common subexpression elimination in LRCC-Lambda. We are confident that the method scales up for proving correctness of copy-related transformations in non-deterministic lambda calculi if restricted to "deterministic" subterms.

- Correctness of copy in calculi with letrec, case, constructors and por (2007)
- This paper extends the internal frank report 28 as follows: It is shown that for a call-by-need lambda calculus LRCCP-Lambda extending the calculus LRCC-Lambda by por, i.e in a lambda-calculus with letrec, case, constructors, seq and por, copying can be done without restrictions, and also that call-by-need and call-by-name strategies are equivalent w.r.t. contextual equivalence.

- Program transformation for functional circuit descriptions (2007)
- We model sequential synchronous circuits on the logical level by signal-processing programs in an extended lambda calculus Lpor with letrec, constructors, case and parallel or (por) employing contextual equivalence. The model describes gates as (parallel) boolean operators, memory using a delay, which in turn is modeled as a shift of the list of signals, and permits also constructive cycles due to the parallel or. It opens the possibility of a large set of program transformations that correctly transform the expressions and thus the represented circuits and provides basic tools for equivalence testing and optimizing circuits. A further application is the correct manipulation by transformations of software components combined with circuits. The main part of our work are proof methods for correct transformations of expressions in the lambda calculus Lpor, and to propose the appropriate program transformations.

- On generic context lemmas for lambda calculi with sharing (2007)
- This paper proves several generic variants of context lemmas and thus contributes to improving the tools to develop observational semantics that is based on a reduction semantics for a language. The context lemmas are provided for may- as well as two variants of mustconvergence and a wide class of extended lambda calculi, which satisfy certain abstract conditions. The calculi must have a form of node sharing, e.g. plain beta reduction is not permitted. There are two variants, weakly sharing calculi, where the beta-reduction is only permitted for arguments that are variables, and strongly sharing calculi, which roughly correspond to call-by-need calculi, where beta-reduction is completely replaced by a sharing variant. The calculi must obey three abstract assumptions, which are in general easily recognizable given the syntax and the reduction rules. The generic context lemmas have as instances several context lemmas already proved in the literature for specific lambda calculi with sharing. The scope of the generic context lemmas comprises not only call-by-need calculi, but also call-by-value calculi with a form of built-in sharing. Investigations in other, new variants of extended lambda-calculi with sharing, where the language or the reduction rules and/or strategy varies, will be simplified by our result, since specific context lemmas are immediately derivable from the generic context lemma, provided our abstract conditions are met.