Multisensory legal machines and legal act production
- This paper expands on the concept of legal machine which was presented first at IRIS 2011
in Salzburg. The research subjects are (1) the creation of institutional facts by machines, and (2)
multimodal communication of legal content to humans. Simple examples are traffic lights and vending
machines. Complicated examples are computer-based information systems in organisations, form
proceedings workflows, and machines which replace officials in organisations. The actions performed
by machines have legal importance and draw legal consequences. Machines similarly as humans can
be imposed status-functions of legal actors. The analogy of machines with humans is in the focus of
this paper. Legal content can be communicated by machines and can be perceived by all of our senses.
The content can be expressed in multimodal languages: textual, visual, acoustic, gestures, aircraft
manoeuvres, etc. The concept of encapsulatation of human into machine is proposed. Herein humanintended
actions are communicated through the machine’s output channel. Encapsulations can be
compared with deities and mythical creatures that can send gods’ messages to people through the
human mouth. This paper also aims to identify law production patterns by machines.
Handwriting analysis for diagnosis and prognosis of Parkinson’s disease
Rüdiger W. Brause
- At present, there are no quantitative, objective methods for diagnosing the Parkinson disease. Existing methods of quantitative analysis by myograms suffer by inaccuracy and patient strain; electronic tablet analysis is limited to the visible drawing, not including the writing forces and hand movements. In our paper we show how handwriting analysis can be obtained by a new electronic pen and new features of the recorded signals. This gives good results for diagnostics. Keywords: Parkinson diagnosis, electronic pen, automatic handwriting analysis
Hazar Lake sunken city
The wells, subterranean passage, tunnels and water systems of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul
- In November 2005, a survey was begun of the wells in and around Hagia Sophia Church in Istanbul. The long-term goal of the survey is the understanding of the function of the tunnels and the water systems used for Hagia Sophia and its surroundings during the Byzantine and the Ottoman periods. Alternate research methods, such as geophysical research, will be used in future surveys. The 2005 survey examined the channels that run from under the narthex and continue northwards and the southwards of the building as well as channels that run towards the atrium, hippodrome, and garden in the north. The survey resulted in the first photos of the well-bottoms in the history of Hagia Sophia.
The development of infants' action-related object knowledge : deferred imitation and eye tracking studies in 12- and 18-month-olds
- Imitation paradigms are used in various domains of developmental psychological research to assess various cognitive processes such as memory (deferred imitation), action perception and action understanding (mainly direct imitation), as well as categorization and learning about objects (deferred imitation with a change in target objects and generalized imitation). Although these processes are most likely not independent from each other, their relations are still largely unclear. On the one hand, deferred imitation studies have shown that infants' performance improves with increasing age, resulting in the reproduction of more target actions after longer delay intervals. On the other hand, imitation studies focusing on infants' action understanding have found that infants do not necessarily imitate the model's exact actions – actions or action steps that seem to be irrational or irrelevant are omitted by infants under certain circumstances (selective imitation). Additionally, findings of imitation studies that require a transfer of the target actions to novel objects have demonstrated that infants do not only learn about actions, but also about objects, when they engage in imitation.
The present dissertation aims at integrating different perspectives of imitation research by testing 12- and 18-month-old infants in deferred imitation tests consisting of functional vs. arbitrary target actions, and by combining deferred imitation with eye tracking in half of the experiments. A deferred imitation paradigm was chosen to assess memory performance. Systematic variation of target action characteristics enabled the assessment of infants' imitation pattern, i.e., if they would imitate one kind of target actions more frequently than the other. Functionality was chosen as the action characteristic in focus because function is an object's most important property, thus this variation might shed some light on infants' learning about objects in the context of an imitation test. The main goal of the eye tracking experiments was to tackle the relations between infants' visual attention to, and deferred imitation of, different kinds of target actions.
The behavioral experiments revealed that both 12- and 18-month-olds imitated significantly more functional than arbitrary target actions after a delay of 30 minutes. In addition, while 12-month-olds showed a memory effect only for functional actions, 18-month-olds showed a memory effect for both kinds of actions. Thus, 12-month-olds imitated strictly selectively, and 18-month-olds imitated more exactly. This shows that the well established memory effect is modulated by target action functionality, which affects 12- and 18-month-olds' imitation differently. Furthermore, when retested after a two weeks delay, 18-month-olds' performance rates of functional and arbitrary target actions decreased parallel. This suggests that selective imitation is not affected by the duration of the retention interval, and that selection of target actions takes place at an earlier stage of action perception and memory processes.
In the eye tracking experiments, both 12- and 18-month-olds' imitation patterns replicated the findings of the behavioral experiments, showing consistently higher imitation rates of functional than arbitrary target actions. Contrary to this, infants' fixation times to the target actions were not affected by target action functionality. This contrast was supported by statistical analyses that found no clear correspondence between visual attention to and deferred imitation of target actions. This suggests that selective imitation cannot be explained by selective visual attention. Nevertheless, finer-grained analyses of gaze and imitation data in the 18 months old group suggested that infants' increased attention to the social-communicative context of the imitation task was related to more exact imitation, i.e. imitation of not only functional, but also arbitrary target actions.
The findings are discussed against the background of imitation theories, with regard to the relations between different cognitive processes underlying infants' imitation, such as memory, action perception and learning about objects.
The different grades students’ understanding levels of the concept of religion in turkish elementary education
- The aim of this study is to examine the different grades students’ understanding levels of the concept of religion in elementary education. A total of 107 different grades students taken from elementary schools were asked the concept in using open ended question developed by the researcher. Obtained data showed that students couldn’t understand the concept correctly and scientifically and the majority of the students had a misconception about the concept such as worshipping, worships, being ethical, ethical behaviours and obligatory behaviours. Furthermore, some students had specific conceptual confusions about the concept.
Some reflections on islamic view of other divine religions within the context of inter-religious dialogue
- Our earth, which is a tiny in the infinity of the universe, is getting to be a difficult place to live in. Environmental problems such as pollution and global warming on one side and various disagreements and wars in every corner of the world on the other side, make most of the people unhappy and cause suffering. Everybody living in this world regardless of his or her ethnicity or religion has got share of responsibility to make this earth a place to live in peace and tranquillity. Within this framework, the most important thing in the world is that people with different languages and religious denominations should understand each other better to achieve the goal of creating more secure and peaceful environment for humanity. To make a contribution to this endeavour the Qur’anic guidelines which appear to open a sound way and strengthen the ground of a dialogue between celestial religions should be elucidated.
Conceptual design of an ALICE Tier-2 centre integrated into a multi-purpose computing facility
- This thesis discusses the issues and challenges associated with the design and operation of a data analysis facility for a high-energy physics experiment at a multi-purpose computing centre. At the spotlight is a Tier-2 centre of the distributed computing model of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The design steps, examined in the thesis, include analysis and optimization of the I/O access patterns of the user workload, integration of the storage resources, and development of the techniques for effective system administration and operation of the facility in a shared computing environment. A number of I/O access performance issues on multiple levels of the I/O subsystem, introduced by utilization of hard disks for data storage, have been addressed by the means of exhaustive benchmarking and thorough analysis of the I/O of the user applications in the ALICE software framework. Defining the set of requirements to the storage system, describing the potential performance bottlenecks and single points of failure and examining possible ways to avoid them allows one to develop guidelines for selecting the way how to integrate the storage resources. The solution, how to preserve a specific software stack for the experiment in a shared environment, is presented along with its effects on the user workload performance. The proposal for a flexible model to deploy and operate the ALICE Tier-2 infrastructure and applications in a virtual environment through adoption of the cloud computing technology and the 'Infrastructure as Code' concept completes the thesis. Scientific software applications can be efficiently computed in a virtual environment, and there is an urgent need to adapt the infrastructure for effective usage of cloud resources.
Alienating Justice: On the Social Surplus Value of the Twelfth Camel
The role of ephrin-B2 in glioblastoma invasion
Helge Zum Buttel