Newsletter / House of Finance, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt 1/11
- Editorial: Michael Heise : The Chief Economist of Allianz SE about the economic outlook for 2011 Research Finance: Andreas Hackethal, Utpal Bhattacharya, Benjamin Loos, Simon Kaesler, Steffen Meyer : "Unbiased Financial Advice – Wanted but not Followed" Research Law: Katja Langenbucher : "Insider Trading in Europe" Research Money/Macro: Thomas Laubach, Michael U. Krause, Matthias Hoffmann : "Long-Run Growth Expectations and Current Account Balances" Policy Platform: Heinz Hilgert, Jan Pieter Krahnen, Günther Merl, Helmut Siekmann : "Proposal for a Reorganisation of the German Landesbanks and Savings Banks Sector" Interview: Viral V. Acharya : "The Dodd-Frank Act Leaves a Lot to be Desired"
The parallel G-quadruplex structure of vertebrate telomeric repeat sequences is not the preferred folding topology under physiological conditions
- G-quadruplex topologies of telomeric repeat sequences from vertebrates were investigated in the presence of molecular crowding (MC) mimetics, namely polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG), Ficoll 70 as well as Xenopus laevis egg extract by CD and NMR spectroscopy and native PAGE. Here, we show that the conformational behavior of the telomeric repeats in X. laevis egg extract or in Ficoll is notably different from that observed in the presence of PEG. While the behavior of the telomeric repeat in X. laevis egg extract or in Ficoll resembles results obtained under dilute conditions, PEG promotes the formation of high-order parallel topologies. Our data suggest that PEG should not be used as a MC mimetic.
Collective flow and mach cones with transport
- Fast thermalization and a strong build up of elliptic flow of QCD matter were investigated within the pQCD based 3+1 dimensional parton transport model BAMPS including bremsstrahlung 2 <-> 3 processes. Within the same framework quenching of gluonic jets in Au+Au collisions at RHIC can be understood. The development of conical structure by gluonic jets is investigated in a static box for the regimes of small and large dissipation. Furthermore we demonstrate two different approaches to extract the shear viscosity coefficient n from a microscopical picture.
Second order dissipative fluid dynamics from kinetic theory
- We derive the equations of second order dissipative fluid dynamics from the relativistic Boltzmann equation following the method of W. Israel and J. M. Stewart . We present a frame independent calculation of all first- and second-order terms and their coefficients using a linearised collision integral. Therefore, we restore all terms that were previously neglected in the original papers of W. Israel and J. M. Stewart.
Zero temperature properties of mesons in a vector meson extended linear sigma model
- A three flavor linear sigma model with vector and axial-vector mesons is discussed. Preliminary results concerning on the symmetry breaking pattern, the question of parameterization, as well as the resulting meson masses are presented.
Scaling of multiplicity and flow: pre-LHC trends and LHC surprises
- We examine the scaling trends in particle multiplicity and flow observables between SPS, RHIC and LHC, and discuss their compatibility with popular theoretical models. We examine the way scaling trends between SPS and RHIC are broken at LHC energies, and suggest experimental measurements which can further clarify the situation.
Energy and system-size dependence of the chiral magnetic effect
Viacheslav D. Toneev
- The energy dependence of the local and violation in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions in a large energy range is estimated within a simple phenomenological model. It is expected that at LHC the chiral magnetic effect will be about 20 times weaker than at RHIC. At lower energy range, covered by the low-energy scan at RHIC and future NICA/FAIR facilities, the created magnetic field strength and energy density of deconfined matter are rather high providing necessary conditions for the chiral magnetic effect. However, the particular model for the chiral magnetic effect predicts that this effect should vanish sharply at energy somewhere above the top SPS one. To elucidate CME background effects the Hadron-String-Dynamics (HSD) transport model including electromagnetic fields is put forward. Importance of new planning experiments at LHC and for the low-energy RHIC scan program is emphasized.
Dynamical equilibration in strongly-interacting parton-hadron matter
Elena L. Bratkovskaya
Mark I. Gorenstein
- We study the kinetic and chemical equilibration in 'infinite' parton-hadron matter within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics transport approach, which is based on a dynamical quasiparticle model for partons matched to reproduce lattice-QCD results – including the partonic equation of state – in thermodynamic equilibrium. The 'infinite' matter is simulated within a cubic box with periodic boundary conditions initialized at different baryon density (or chemical potential) and energy density. The transition from initially pure partonic matter to hadronic degrees of freedom (or vice versa) occurs dynamically by interactions. Different thermody-namical distributions of the strongly-interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) are addressed and discussed.
Development and validation of a paediatric long-bone fracture classification : a prospective multicentre study in 13 European paediatric trauma centres
Lutz von Laer
- Background: The aim of this study was to develop a child-specific classification system for long bone fractures and to examine its reliability and validity on the basis of a prospective multicentre study. Methods: Using the sequentially developed classification system, three samples of between 30 and 185 paediatric limb fractures from a pool of 2308 fractures documented in two multicenter studies were analysed in a blinded fashion by eight orthopaedic surgeons, on a total of 5 occasions. Intra- and interobserver reliability and accuracy were calculated. Results: The reliability improved with successive simplification of the classification. The final version resulted in an overall interobserver agreement of kappa=0.71 with no significant difference between experienced and less experienced raters. Conclusions: In conclusion, the evaluation of the newly proposed classification system resulted in a reliable and routinely applicable system, for which training in its proper use may further improve the reliability. It can be recommended as a useful tool for clinical practice and offers the option for developing treatment recommendations and outcome predictions in the future.
Classical homeopathy in the treatment of cancer patients - a prospective observational study of two independent cohorts
Hans H. Bartsch
- Background: Many cancer patients seek homeopathy as a complementary therapy. It has rarely been studied systematically, whether homeopathic care is of benefit for cancer patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study with cancer patients in two differently treated cohorts: one cohort with patients under complementary homeopathic treatment (HG; n=259), and one cohort with conventionally treated cancer patients (CG; n=380). For a direct comparison, matched pairs with patients of the same tumour entity and comparable prognosis were to be formed. Main outcome parameter: change of quality of life (FACT-G, FACIT-Sp) after 3 months. Secondary outcome parameters: change of quality of life (FACT-G, FACIT-Sp) after a year, as well as impairment by fatigue (MFI) and by anxiety and depression (HADS). Results: HG: FACT-G, or FACIT-Sp, respectively improved statistically significantly in the first three months, from 75.6 (SD 14.6) to 81.1 (SD 16.9), or from 32.1 (SD 8.2) to 34.9 (SD 8.32), respectively. After 12 months, a further increase to 84.1 (SD 15.5) or 35.2 (SD 8.6) was found. Fatigue (MFI) decreased; anxiety and depression (HADS) did not change. CG: FACT-G remained constant in the first three months: 75.3 (SD 17.3) at t0, and 76.6 (SD 16.6) at t1. After 12 months, there was a slight increase to 78.9 (SD 18.1). FACIT-Sp scores improved significantly from t0 (31.0 - SD 8.9) to t1 (32.1 - SD 8.9) and declined again after a year (31.6 - SD 9.4). For fatigue, anxiety, and depression, no relevant changes were found. 120 patients of HG and 206 patients of CG met our criteria for matched-pairs selection. Due to large differences between the two patient populations, however, only 11 matched pairs could be formed. This is not sufficient for a comparative study. Conclusion: In our prospective study, we observed an improvement of quality of life as well as a tendency of fatigue symptoms to decrease in cancer patients under complementary homeopathic treatment. It would take considerably larger samples to find matched pairs suitable for comparison in order to establish a definite causal relation between these effects and homeopathic treatment.