## Universitätspublikationen

- Pion and thermal photon spectra as a possible signal for a phase transition (2005)
- We calculate thermal photon and neutral pion spectra in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions in the framework of three-fluid hydrodynamics. Both spectra are quite sensitive to the equation of state used. In particular, within our model, recent data for S + Au at 200 AGeV can only be understood if a scenario with a phase transition (possibly to a quark-gluon plasma) is assumed. Results for Au+Au at 11 AGeV and Pb + Pb at 160 AGeV are also presented.

- Equilibrium and nonequilibrium effects in nucleus nucleus collisions (1999)
- Abstract: Local thermal and chemical equilibration is studied for central AqA collisions at 10.7 160 AGeV in the Ultrarelativis- . tic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model UrQMD . The UrQMD model exhibits strong deviations from local equilibrium at the high density hadron string phase formed during the early stage of the collision. Equilibration of the hadron resonance matter is established in the central cell of volume Vs125 fm3 at later stages, tG10 fmrc, of the resulting quasi-isentropic expansion. The thermodynamical functions in the cell and their time evolution are presented. Deviations of the UrQMD quasi-equilibrium state from the statistical mechanics equilibrium are found. They increase with energy per baryon and lead to a strong enhancement of the pion number density as compared to statistical mechanics estimates at SPS energies. PACS: 25.75.-q; 24.10.Lx; 24.10.Pa; 64.30.qt

- Dissociation of expanding c anti-c states in heavy ion collisions (1999)
- We study J/psi suppression in AB collisions assuming that the charmonium states evolve from small, color transparent configurations. Their interaction with nucleons and nonequilibrated, secondary hadrons is simulated using the microscopic model UrQMD. The Drell-Yan lepton pair yield and the J/psi Drell-Yan ratio are calculated as a function of the neutral transverse energy in Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV and found to be in reasonable agreement with existing data.

- Nuclear shadowing effects on prompt photons at RHIC and LHC (1998)
- The transverse momentum distribution of prompt photons coming from the very early phase of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions for the RHIC and LHC energies is calculated by means of perturbative QCD. We calculate the single photon cross section (A + B -> gamma + X) by taking into account the partonic sub processes q + q -> gamma + g and q + g -> gamma + q as well as the Bremsstrahlung corrections to those processes. We choose a lower momentum cut-off k0 = 2 GeV separating the soft physics from perturbative QCD. We compare the results for those primary collisions with the photons produced in reactions of the thermalized secondary particles, which are calculated within scaling hydrodynamics. The QCD processes are taken in leading order. Nuclear shadowing corrections, which alter the involved nuclear structure functions are explicitly taken into account and compared to unshadowed results. Employing the GRV parton distribution parametrizations we find that at RHIC prompt QCD-photons dominate over the thermal radiation down to transverse momenta kT ≈ 2 GeV. At LHC, however, thermal radiation from the QGP dominates for photon transverse momenta kT ≤ 5 GeV, if nuclear shadowing effects on prompt photon production are taken into account.

- Relativistic quantum transport theory of hadronic matter: the coupled nucleon, delta and pion system (1998)
- We derive the relativistic quantum transport equation for the pion distribution function based on an effective Lagrangian of the QHD-II model. The closed time-path Green s function technique, the semi-classical, quasiparticle and Born approximation are employed in the derivation. Both the mean field and collision term are derived from the same Lagrangian and presented analytically. The dynamical equation for the pions is consistent with that for the nucleons and deltas which we developed before. Thus, we obtain a relativistic transport model which describes the hadronic matter with N,Delta and pi degrees of freedom simultaneously. Within this approach, we investigate the medium e ects on the pion dispersion relation as well as the pion absorption and pion production channels in cold nuclear matter. In contrast to the results of the non-relativistic model, the pion dispersion relation becomes harder at low momenta and softer at high momenta as compared to the free one, which is mainly caused by the relativistic kinetics. The theoretically predicted free pi*N -> Delta cross section is in agreement with the experimental data. Medium e ects on the pi*N -> Delta cross section and momentum-dependent Delta-decay width are shown to be substantial. PACS number(s): 24.10.Cn; 13.75.Cs; 21.65.+f; 25.70.-z

- Can momentum correlations proof kinetic equilibration in heavy ion collisions at 160/A-GeV? (1998)
- We perform an event-by-event analysis of the transverse momentum distribution of final state particles in central Pb(160AGeV)+Pb collisions within a microscopic non-equilibrium transport model (UrQMD). Strong influence of rescattering is found. The extracted momentum distributions show less fluctuations in A+A collisions than in p+p reactions. This is in contrast to simplified p+p extrapolations and random walk models.

- Excitation function of energy density and partonic degrees of freedom in relativistic heavy ion collisions (1998)
- We estimate the energy density epsilon pile-up at mid-rapidity in central Pb+Pb collisions from 2 200 GeV/nucleon. epsilon is decomposed into hadronic and partonic contributions. A detailed analysis of the collision dynamics in the framework of a microscopic transport model shows the importance of partonic degrees of freedom and rescattering of leading (di)quarks in the early phase of the reaction for Elab 30 GeV/nucleon. In Pb+Pb collisions at 160 GeV/nucleon the energy density reaches up to 4 GeV/fm3, 95% of which are contained in partonic degrees of freedom.

- Charmonium suppression from purely geometrical effects (1998)
- The extend to which geometrical effects contribute to the production and suppression of the J/psi and qq minijet pairs in general is investigated for high energy heavy ion collisions at SPS, RHIC and LHC energies. For the energy range under investigation, the geometrical e ects referred to are shadowing and anti-shadowing, respectively. Due to those effects, the parton distributions in nuclei deviate from the naive extrapolation from the free nucleon result; fA 6= AfN. The strength of the shadowing/anti-shadowing e ect increases with the mass number. Therefore it is interesting to see the di erence between cross sections for e.g. S+U vs. Pb+Pb at SPS. The recent NA50 results for the survival probability of produced J/psi s has attracted great attention and are often interpreted as a signature of a quark gluon plasma. This publication will present a fresh look on hard QCD e ects for the charmonium production level. It is shown that the apparent suppression of J/psi s must also be linked to the production process. Due to the uncertainty in the shadowing of gluons the suppression of charmonium states might not give reli- able information on a created plasma phase at the collider energies soon available. The consequences of shadowing e ects for the xF distribution of J/psi s at s = 20 GeV, s = 200 GeV and s = 6 TeV are calculated for some relevant combinations of nuclei, as well as the pT distribution of minijets at midrapidity for Nf = 4 in the final state.

- Properties of exotic matter for heavy ion searches (1997)
- We examine the properties of both forms of strange matter, small lumps of strange quark matter (strangelets) and of strange hadronic matter (Metastable Exotic Multihypernuclear Objects: MEMOs) and their relevance for present and future heavy ion searches. The strong and weak decays are discussed separately to distinguish between long-lived and short-lived candidates where the former ones are detectable in present heavy ion experiments while the latter ones in future heavy ion experiments, respectively. We find some long-lived strangelet candidates which are highly negatively charged with a mass to charge ratio like a anti deuteron (M/Z 2) but masses of A=10 to 16. We predict also many short-lived candidates, both in quark and in hadronic form, which can be highly charged. Purely hyperonic nuclei like the (2 02 ) are bound and have a negative charge while carrying a positive baryon number. We demonstrate also that multiply charmed exotics (charmlets) might be bound and can be produced at future heavy ion colliders.

- Nonequilibrium fluid-dynamics in the early stage of ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions (1997)
- To describe ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions we construct a three-fluid hydrodynamical model. In contrast to one-fluid hydrodynamics, it accounts for the finite stopping power of nuclear matter, i.e. for nonequilibrium e ects in the early stage of the reaction. Within this model, we study baryon dynamics in the BNL-AGS energy range. For the system Au+Au we find that kinetic equilibrium between projectile and target nucleons is established only after a time teq CM H 5 fm/c C 2RAu/³CM. Observables which are sensitive to the early stage of the collision (like e.g. nucleon flow) therefore di er considerably from those calculated in the one-fluid model.