G6b-B inhibits constitutive and agonist-induced signaling by glycoprotein VI and CLEC-2
Andrew C. Pearce
Jennifer C. Spalton
Johannes Andreas Eble
Michael G. Tomlinson
Yotis A. Senis
Steve P. Watson
- Platelets play an essential role in wound healing by forming thrombi that plug holes in the walls of damaged blood vessels. To achieve this, platelets express a diverse array of cell surface receptors and signaling proteins that induce rapid platelet activation. In this study we show that two platelet glycoprotein receptors that signal via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or an ITAM-like domain, namely the collagen receptor complex glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-FcR γ-chain and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), respectively, support constitutive (i.e. agonist-independent) signaling in a cell line model using a nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) transcriptional reporter assay that can detect low level activation of phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ). Constitutive and agonist signaling by both receptors is dependent on Src and Syk family kinases, and is inhibited by G6b-B, a platelet immunoglobulin receptor that has two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in its cytosolic tail. Mutation of the conserved tyrosines in the two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs prevents the inhibitory action of G6b-B. Interestingly, the inhibitory activity of G6b-B is independent of the Src homology 2 (SH2)-domain containing tyrosine phosphatases, SHP1 and SHP2, and the inositol 5′-phosphatase, SHIP. Constitutive signaling via Src and Syk tyrosine kinases is observed in platelets and is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of GPVI-FcR γ-chain and CLEC-2. We speculate that inhibition of constitutive signaling through Src and Syk tyrosine kinases by G6b-B may help to prevent unwanted platelet activation.
Editorial: Experimental models of asthma
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Since 2002, a workshop entitled “Asthma in animal models” has been held once a year in Hannover, Germany. It is organized by the Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine in collaboration with the collaborative research centre “Sonderforschungsbereich” 587, “Immune reactions of the lung in infection and allergy” (Hannover Medical School). The aim of these meetings is an intense scientific exchange between researchers and clinicians coming from academic or industrial background. Over the years the topics within the extensive field of asthma and COPD have ranged from methodological aspects to the influence of infections and environmental factors up to perspectives in the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Effect of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced mucus secretion in the rat
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Background: Platelet activating factor and tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B) are important mediators contributing to increased airway secretion in the context of different types of respiratory diseases including acute and chronic asthma. Leukotriene receptor antagonists are recommended as add-on therapy for this disease. The cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist montelukast has been used in clinical asthma therapy during the last years. Besides its inhibitory action on bronchoconstriction, only little is known about its effects on airway secretions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity.
Methods: The effects of montelukast on platelet activating factor- and tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity in the rat were assessed by quantification of secreted 35SO4 labelled mucus macromolecules using the modified Ussing chamber technique.
Results: Platelet activating factor potently stimulated airway secretion, which was completely inhibited by the platelet activating factor receptor antagonist WEB 2086 and montelukast. In contrast, montelukast had no effect on tachykinin induced tracheal secretory activity.
Conclusion: Cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonism by montelukast reverses the secretagogue properties of platelet activating factor to the same degree as the specific platelet activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 but has no influence on treacheal secretion elicited by tachykinins. These results suggest a role of montelukast in the signal transduction pathway of platelet activating factor induced secretory activity of the airways and may further explain the beneficial properties of cys-leukotriene-1 receptor antagonists.
Development and evaluation of a computer-based medical work assessment programme
Torsten T. Bauer
Burghard F. Klapp
Jan David Alexander Groneberg
- Background: There are several ways to conduct a job task analysis in medical work environments including pencil-paper observations, interviews and questionnaires. However these methods implicate bias problems such as high inter-individual deviations and risks of misjudgement. Computer-based observation helps to reduce these problems. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the development process of a computer-based job task analysis instrument for real-time observations to quantify the job tasks performed by physicians working in different medical settings. In addition reliability and validity data of this instrument will be demonstrated.
Methods: This instrument was developed in consequential steps. First, lists comprising tasks performed by physicians in different care settings were classified. Afterwards content validity of task lists was proved. After establishing the final task categories, computer software was programmed and implemented in a mobile personal computer. At least inter-observer reliability was evaluated. Two trained observers recorded simultaneously tasks of the same physician.
Results: Content validity of the task lists was confirmed by observations and experienced specialists of each medical area. Development process of the job task analysis instrument was completed successfully. Simultaneous records showed adequate interrater reliability.
Conclusion: Initial results of this analysis supported the validity and reliability of this developed method for assessing physicians' working routines as well as organizational context factors. Based on results using this method, possible improvements for health professionals' work organisation can be identified.
Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge
- Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961–1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3/(capita yr) for the Falkland Islands, the global average in the year 2000 being 2091 m3/(capita yr). Regarding the uncertainty of estimated groundwater resources due to the two precipitation data sets, deviation from the mean is 1.1% for the global value, and less than 1% for 50 out of the 165 countries considered, between 1 and 5% for 62, between 5 and 20% for 43 and between 20 and 80% for 10 countries. Deviations at the grid scale can be much larger, ranging between 0 and 186 mm/yr.
Value of river discharge data for global-scale hydrological modeling
- This paper investigates the value of observed river discharge data for global-scale hydrological modeling of a number of flow characteristics that are e.g. required for assessing water resources, flood risk and habitat alteration of aquatic ecosystems. An improved version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) was tuned against measured discharge using either the 724-station dataset (V1) against which former model versions were tuned or an extended dataset (V2) of 1235 stations. WGHM is tuned by adjusting one model parameter (γ) that affects runoff generation from land areas in order to fit simulated and observed long-term average discharge at tuning stations. In basins where γ does not suffice to tune the model, two correction factors are applied successively: the areal correction factor corrects local runoff in a basin and the station correction factor adjusts discharge directly the gauge. Using station correction is unfavorable, as it makes discharge discontinuous at the gauge and inconsistent with runoff in the upstream basin. The study results are as follows. (1) Comparing V2 to V1, the global land area covered by tuning basins increases by 5% and the area where the model can be tuned by only adjusting γ increases by 8%. However, the area where a station correction factor (and not only an areal correction factor) has to be applied more than doubles. (2) The value of additional discharge information for representing the spatial distribution of long-term average discharge (and thus renewable water resources) with WGHM is high, particularly for river basins outside of the V1 tuning area and in regions where the refined dataset provides a significant subdivision of formerly extended tuning basins (average V2 basin size less than half the V1 basin size). If the additional discharge information were not used for tuning, simulated long-term average discharge would differ from the observed one by a factor of, on average, 1.8 in the formerly untuned basins and 1.3 in the subdivided basins. The benefits tend to be higher in semi-arid and snow-dominated regions where the model is less reliable than in humid areas and refined tuning compensates for uncertainties with regard to climate input data and for specific processes of the water cycle that cannot be represented yet by WGHM. Regarding other flow characteristics like low flow, inter-annual variability and seasonality, the deviation between simulated and observed values also decreases significantly, which, however, is mainly due to the better representation of average discharge but not of variability. (3) The choice of the optimal sub-basin size for tuning depends on the modeling purpose. While basins over 60 000 km2 are performing best, improvements in V2 model performance are strongest in small basins between 9000 and 20 000 km2, which is primarily related to a low level of V1 performance. Increasing the density of tuning stations provides a better spatial representation of discharge, but it also decreases model consistency, as almost half of the basins below 20 000 km2 require station correction.
Molecular mechanisms of IL-18BP regulation in DLD-1 cells: pivotal direct action of the STAT1/GAS axis on the promoter level
Josef Martin Pfeilschifter
- Interleukin (IL)-18, formerly known as interferon (IFN)-γ-inducing factor, is a crucial mediator of host defence and inflammation. Control of IL-18 bioactivity by its endogenous antagonist IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) is a major objective of immunoregulation. IL-18BP is strongly up-regulated by IFN-γ, thereby establishing a negative feedback mechanism detectable in cell culture and in vivo. Here we sought to investigate in D.L. Dexter (DLD) colon carcinoma cells molecular mechanisms of IL-18BP induction under the influence of IFN-γ. Mutational analysis revealed that a proximal γ-activated sequence (GAS) at the IL-18BP promoter is of pivotal importance for expression by IFN-γ-activated cells. Use of siRNA underscored the essential role of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 in this process. Indeed, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis proved STAT1 binding to this particular GAS site. Maximal expression of IL-18BP was dependent on de novo protein synthesis but unaffected by silencing of interferon regulatory factor-1. Altogether, data presented herein indicate that direct action of STAT1 on the IL-18BP promoter at the proximal GAS element is key to IL-18BP expression by IFN-γ-stimulated DLD-1 colon carcinoma cells.
The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid alters growth properties of renal cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo
Roman A. Blaheta
- Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors represent a promising class of antineoplastic agents which affect tumour growth, differentiation and invasion. The effects of the HDAC inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) were tested in vitro and in vivo on pre-clinical renal cell carcinoma (RCC) models. Caki-1, KTC-26 or A498 cells were treated with various concentrations of VPA during in vitro cell proliferation 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays and to evaluate cell cycle manipulation. In vivo tumour growth was conducted in subcutaneous xenograft mouse models. The anti-tumoural potential of VPA combined with low-dosed interferon-α (IFN-α) was also investigated. VPA significantly and dose-dependently up-regulated histones H3 and H4 acetylation and caused growth arrest in RCC cells. VPA altered cell cycle regulating proteins, in particular CDK2, cyclin B, cyclin D3, p21 and Rb. In vivo, VPA significantly inhibited the growth of Caki-1 in subcutaneous xenografts, accompanied by a strong accumulation of p21 and bax in tissue specimens of VPA-treated animals. VPA–IFN-α combination markedly enhanced the effects of VPA monotherapy on RCC proliferation in vitro, but did not further enhance the anti-tumoural potential of VPA in vivo. VPA was found to have profound effects on RCC cell growth, lending support to the initiation of clinical testing of VPA for treating advanced RCC.
Clinical feasibility of (neo)adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy in older patients: analysis of >4,500 patients from four German randomized breast cancer trials
Gunter von Minckwitz
- INTRODUCTION: Despite the fact that people older than 65 years of age have the highest incidence of developing breast cancer, these patients are excluded from clinical trials in most cases. Furthermore, most physicians tend towards therapy regimens without the use of dose-dense, highly active taxane-based treatments because of a lack of data regarding toxicities of these compounds in older patients.
METHODS: Pooled side-effect data were analyzed from four prospective, randomized clinical trials in which patients of different age groups (< 60 years, between 60 and 64 years, and > 64 years) with primary breast cancer received taxane-based chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Dose delays, dose reductions, hospitalization, and therapy discontinuation increased with age. Hematologic toxicities and some nonhematologic toxicities were generally more common in older patients. Leucopenia increased from 55.3% in patients aged < 60 years to 65.5% in patients aged > 64 years (P < 0.001), and neutropenia increased from 46.9% to 57.4% (P < 0.001). There was no difference, however, in clinically more relevant febrile neutropenia between the different age groups. Thrombopenia shows a similar age-dependent increase, whereas there is no difference between the age groups concerning anemia. Hot flushes and elevated liver enzymes decreased with increasing age.
CONCLUSIONS: The present pooled analysis of a substantial cohort of older primary breast cancer patients demonstrates that taxane-containing (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy is feasible in older patients and that toxicity can be reduced by sequential therapy regimens.
ADAM15 modulates outside-in signalling in chondrocyte–matrix interactions
Beate B. Böhm
- ADAM15 belongs to a family of transmembrane multi-domain proteins implicated in proteolysis, cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions in various disease conditions. In osteoarthritis (OA), ADAM15 is up-regulated in the chondrocytes already at early stages of cartilage degeneration where it seems to exert homeostatic effects likely associated with its ability to enhance integrin-mediated chondrocyte adhesion to the surrounding collagen matrix. The aim of our present study was, therefore, to characterize functional domains of ADAM15 involved in collagen II (CII) interaction and to analyse associated outside-in signalling events. Accordingly, ADAM15 and respective deletion mutants were stably transfected into the chondrocyte cell line T/C28a4. Transfected cells were adhered to CII and phosphoproteins analysed by Western blotting. Co-immunoprecipitation served to identify protein binding to ADAM15. Our results elucidate the prodomain as critical for the capacity of ADAM15 to enhance CII adhesion, thereby identifying for the first time a cell-adhesive role of a metalloproteinase prodomain. Moreover, the cytoplasmic tail of ADAM15 confers a modulatory effect on the autophosphorylation site Y397 of the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) during chondrocyte–collagen interaction. In conclusion, the newly uncovered impact of ADAM15 on signalling events that arise from chondrocyte interactions with its collagen matrix might contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism underlying its proposed chondroprotective role in degenerative cartilage disease.