Statistisch-klimatologische Analyse des Hitzesommers 2003 in Deutschland
Use of radiobiological modeling in treatment plan evaluation and optimization of prostate cancer radiotherapy
Bengt K. Lind
- There are many tools available that are used to evaluate a radiotherapy treatment plan, such as isodose distribution charts, dose volume histograms (DVH), maximum, minimum and mean doses of the dose distributions as well as DVH point dose constraints. All the already mentioned evaluation tools are dosimetric only without taking into account the radiobiological characteristics of tumors or OARs. It has been demonstrated that although competing treatment plans might have similar mean, maximum or minimum doses they may have significantly different clinical outcomes (Mavroidis et al. 2001). For performing a more complete treatment plan evaluation and comparison the complication-free tumor control probability (P+) and the biologically effective uniform dose (D ) have been proposed (Källman et al. 1992a, Mavroidis et al. 2000). The D concept denotes that any two dose distributions within a target or OAR are equivalent if they produce the same probability for tumor control or normal tissue complication, respectively (Mavroidis et al. 2001)...
Quantum Theory as Universal Theory of Structures – Essentially from Cosmos to Consciousness
- Quantum theory is the most successful physical theory ever. About one third of the gross national product in the developed countries results from its applications. These applications range from nuclear power to most of the high-tech tools for computing, laser, solar cells and so on. No limit for its range of validity has been found up to now...
Application of the liposuction techniques and principles in specific body areas and pathologies
Jorge A. D’Angelo
- The buttocks have been a symbol of attraction, sexuality and eroticism since ancient times and therefore, they have an important role in defining the posterior body contour. More and more people are talking about and understand the meaning and the role that buttocks play in modeling and physical beauty. The three dimensional gluteoplasty (3-DGP) is an innovative technique that allows us to change volume, shape and firmness, not only in the buttocks but also in the adjacent regions such as the thighs and trochanters, becoming an ideal tool to answer the frequent reasons of consultation of our patients about this particular area of the body: ...
Novel therapeutic venues for glioblastoma: novel rising preclinical treatment opportunities
Markus David Siegelin
- High grade gliomas, including anaplastic glioma WHO grade III and glioblastoma WHO IV (GBM), carry a dismal prognosis. Taking all nowadays-available therapeutics options, including radiation, chemotherapy and surgery, for GBM into consideration the prognosis after initial diagnosis is about 12 month. Despite this bad prognosis, researchers gained a tremendous insight into the molecular and genetic signatures of low and high grade gliomas. Several different subtypes of GBM were demonstrated with respect to their genetic background. These genetic alterations include p53 mutation in secondary GBMs and EGFR amplification in primary GBMs, respectively. Very recently, great excitement was raised after the discovery of IDH1 mutation in low-grade gliomas and secondary GBMs. This discovery is of great significance since it allows further categorizing of GBMs and is helpful in distinguishing low-grade gliomas from non-neoplastic adjacent brain tissue. Despite all this progress there is an urgent need for fresh additional therapeutic strategies. In addition to the identification of novel therapeutic regimens it is of utmost importance to gain an understanding about the molecular mechanisms on how GBMs manage to evade from almost any anti-cancer treatment regimen. In experimental models of glioblastoma there are a number of novel therapeutic regimens that exhibited promising results. These novel therapeutics include, but are not limited to: Apoptosis-based therapeutics (Tumor necrosis factor alpha related apoptosis inducing ligand, TRAIL), tyrosinkinase-inhibitors, Heat-shock-protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors, polyphenols, novel drug combinations and intracranial application based strategies. This chapter will primarily review and focus on molecular mechanisms of resistance in GBM and rising new therapeutic venues for high-grade gliomas. High-grade gliomas are a group of primary heterogenous tumors of which glioblastoma World Health Organisation, WHO IV (GBM), is the most common one. Once the diagnosis of GBM is made, the average survival time is approximately 12-15 month (Hegi, Diserens et al., 2005). Treatment usually consists of temozolomide (commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of GBM, TMZ), radiation (either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutics) and surgery (Hegi, Diserens et al., 2005)...
Expertise as Social Institution : Internalising Third Parties into the Contract
Ein Kramladen des Glücks. Filesharing aus Leidenschaft
- Vorliegender Text ist die leicht erweiterte Fassung von: Harald Hillgärtner: Ein Kramladen des Glücks. Filesharing aus Leidenschaft, in: Harald Hillgärtner, Thomas Küpper (Hg.): Medien und Ästhetik. Festschrift für Burkhardt Lindner, Bielefeld: transcript 2003, S. 332-342. Dieser Aufsatz war Grundlage eines Vortrages bei der Tagung "interfiction X - 2003 filesharer values - Ökonomien des (Aus-)Tauschs Utopien und Realitäten von Kulturproduktion unter Netzbedingungen", aus der Anregungen für diesen Text hervorgingen.
A Machine Learning Approach to Preference Strategies for Anaphor Resolution
- In the last years, much effort went into the design of robust anaphor resolution algorithms. Many algorithms are based on antecedent filtering and preference strategies that are manually designed. Along a different line of research, corpus-based approaches have been investigated that employ machine-learning techniques for deriving strategies automatically. Since the knowledge-engineering effort for designing and optimizing the strategies is reduced, the latter approaches are considered particularly attractive. Since, however, the hand-coding of robust antecedent filtering strategies such as syntactic disjoint reference and agreement in person, number, and gender constitutes a once-for-all effort, the question arises whether at all they should be derived automatically. In this paper, it is investigated what might be gained by combining the best of two worlds: designing the universally valid antecedent filtering strategies manually, in a once-for-all fashion, and deriving the (potentially genre-specific) antecedent selection strategies automatically by applying machine-learning techniques. An anaphor resolution system ROSANA-ML, which follows this paradigm, is designed and implemented. Through a series of formal evaluations, it is shown that, while exhibiting additional advantages, ROSANAML reaches a performance level that compares with the performance of its manually designed ancestor ROSANA.
Berichte gegen Vergessen und Verdrängen : von 100 überlebenden jüdischen Schülerinnen und Schülern über die NS-Zeit in Frankfurt am Main ; "der Weg zur Schule war eine tägliche Qual"
- Skriptum zum Kapitel III der Vorlesung Höhere Algebra und Zahlentheorie, WS 2000/01.