Exploring the QCD phase diagram
- Lattice simulations employing reweighting and Taylor expansion techniques have predicted a
(m;T)-phase diagram according to general expectations, with an analytic quark-hadron crossover
at m =0 turning into a first order transition at some critical chemical potential mE. By contrast, recent
simulations using imgainary m followed by analytic continuation obtained a critical structure
in the fmu;d;ms;T;mg parameter space favouring the absence of a critical point and first order line.
I review the evidence for the latter scenario, arguing that the various raw data are not inconsistent
with each other. Rather, the discrepancy appears when attempting to extract continuum results
from the coarse (Nt =4) lattices simulated so far, and can be explained by cut-off effects. New (as
yet unpublished) data are presented, which for Nf = 3 and on Nt = 4 confirm the scenario without
a critical point. Moreover, simulations on finer Nt = 6 lattices show that even if there is a critical
point, continuum extrapolation moves it to significantly larger values of mE than anticipated on
The finite-temperature phase structure of lattice QCD with twisted-mass Wilson fermions
Maria Paola Lombardo
- We report progress in our exploration of the finite-temperature phase structure of two-flavour lattice
QCD with twisted-mass Wilson fermions and a tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action
for a temporal lattice size Nt = 8. Extending our investigations to a wider region of parameter
space we gain a global view of the rich phase structure. We identify the finite temperature transition/
crossover for a non-vanishing twisted-mass parameter in the neighbourhood of the zerotemperature
critical line at sufficiently high b . Our findings are consistent with Creutz’s conjecture
of a conical shape of the finite temperature transition surface. Comparing with NLO lattice
cPT we achieve an improved understanding of this shape.
Towards a determination of the chiral critical surface of QCD
- The chiral critical surface is a surface of second order phase transitions bounding the region of
first order chiral phase transitions for small quark masses in the fmu;d;ms;mg parameter space.
The potential critical endpoint of the QCD (T;m)-phase diagram is widely expected to be part of
this surface. Since for m = 0 with physical quark masses QCD is known to exhibit an analytic
crossover, this expectation requires the region of chiral transitions to expand with m for a chiral
critical endpoint to exist. Instead, on coarse Nt = 4 lattices, we find the area of chiral transitions
to shrink with m, which excludes a chiral critical point for QCD at moderate chemical potentials
mB < 500 MeV. First results on finer Nt = 6 lattices indicate a curvature of the critical surface
consistent with zero and unchanged conclusions. We also comment on the interplay of phase
diagrams between the Nf = 2 and Nf = 2+1 theories and its consequences for physical QCD.
Lattice calculations at non-zero chemical potential: the QCD phase diagram
- The so-called sign problem of lattice QCD prohibits Monte Carlo simulations at finite baryon
density by means of importance sampling. Over the last few years, methods have been developed
which are able to circumvent this problem as long as the quark chemical potential is m=T <~1.
After a brief review of these methods, their application to a first principles determination of the
QCD phase diagram for small baryon densities is summarised. The location and curvature of the
pseudo-critical line of the quark hardon transition is under control and extrapolations to physical
quark masses and the continuum are feasible in the near future. No definite conclusions can as
yet be drawn regarding the existence of a critical end point, which turns out to be extremely quark
mass and cut-off sensitive. Investigations with different methods on coarse lattices show the lightmass
chiral phase transition to weaken when a chemical potential is switched on. If persisting on
finer lattices, this would imply that there is no chiral critical point or phase transition for physical
QCD. Any critical structure would then be related to physics other than chiral symmetry breaking.
Screened perturbation theory for 3d Yang-Mills theory and the magnetic modes of hot QCD : International Workshop on QCD Green’s Functions, Confinement, and Phenomenology - QCD-TNT09, September 07 - 11 2009, ECT Trento, Italy
- Perturbation theory for non-abelian gauge theories at finite temperature is plagued by infrared
divergences which are caused by magnetic soft modes ~ g2T, corresponding to gluon fields of
a 3d Yang-Mills theory. While the divergences can be regulated by a dynamically generated
magnetic mass on that scale, the gauge coupling drops out of the effective expansion parameter
requiring summation of all loop orders for the calculation of observables. Some gauge invariant
possibilities to implement such infrared-safe resummations are reviewed. We use a scheme based
on the non-linear sigma model to estimate some of the contributions ~ g6 of the soft magnetic
modes to the QCD pressure through two loops. The NLO contribution amounts to ~ 10% of the
LO, suggestive of a reasonable convergence of the series.
Towards corrections to the strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD : the XXIX International Symposium on Lattice Field Theory - Lattice 2011, July 10 - 16, 2011, Squaw Valley, Lake Tahoe, California
Philippe de Forcrand
- We report on the first steps of an ongoing project to add gauge observables and gauge corrections
to the well-studied strong coupling limit of staggered lattice QCD, which has been shown earlier
to be amenable to numerical simulations by the worm algorithm in the chiral limit and at finite
density. Here we show how to evaluate the expectation value of the Polyakov loop in the framework
of the strong coupling limit at finite temperature, allowing to study confinement properties
along with those of chiral symmetry breaking. We find the Polyakov loop to rise smoothly, thus
signalling deconfinement. The non-analytic nature of the chiral phase transition is reflected in the
derivative of the Polyakov loop. We also discuss how to construct an effective theory for non-zero
lattice coupling, which is valid to O(b).
Implications on the collision dynamics via azimuthal sensitive HBT from UrQMD : the Seventh Workshop on Particle Correlations and Femtoscopy, September 20 - 24 2011, University of Tokyo, Japan
Michael Annan Lisa
- We explore the shape and orientation of the freezeout region of non-central heavy ion collisions.
For this we fit the freezeout distribution with a tilted ellipsoid. The resulting tilt angle is compared
to the same tilt angle extracted via an azimuthally sensitive HBT analysis. This allows to access
the tilt angle experimentally, which is not possible directly from the freezeout distribution. We
also show a systematic study on the system decoupling time dependence on dNch/dh, using HBT
results from the UrQMD transport model. In this study we found that the decoupling time scales
with (dNch/dh)1/3 within each energy, but the scaling is broken across energies.
Direct photon emission in heavy ion collisions from microscopic transport theory and fluid dynamics : XLVIII International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics, BORMIO2010, January 25 - 29, 2010, Bormio, Italy
- Direct photon emission in heavy-ion collisions is calculated within a relativistic micro+macro
hybrid model and compared to the microscopic transport model UrQMD. In the hybrid approach,
the high-density part of the collision is calculated by an ideal 3+1-dimensional hydrodynamic
calculation, while the early (pre-equilibrium-) and late (rescattering-) phase are calculated with
the transport model. Different scenarios of the transition from the macroscopic description to
the transport model description and their effects are studied. The calculations are compared to
measurements by the WA98-collaboration and predictions for the future CBM-experiment are
TOFtracker: combination of time-of-flight and high-accuracy bidimensional tracking in a single gaseous detector
Rui Ferreira Marques
- A 5-gap timing RPC equipped with patterned electrodes coupled to both charge-sensitive and
timing circuits yields a time accuracy of 77 ps along with a position accuracy of 38 μm. These
results were obtained by calculating the straight-line fit residuals to the positions provided by a
3-layer telescope made out of identical detectors, detecting almost perpendicular cosmic-ray
muons. The device may be useful for particle identification by time-of-flight, where
simultaneous measurements of trajectory and time are necessary.
Study of exclusive one-pion and one-eta production using hadron and dielectron channels in pp reactions at kinetic beam energies of 1.25 GeV and 2.2 GeV with HADES
Juan A. Garzón
Burkhard W. Kolb
Jacek Tomasz Otwinowski
Yvonne C. Pachmayer
Tiago Pérez Cavalcanti
- We present measurements of exclusive ensuremathπ+,0 and η production in pp reactions at 1.25GeV and 2.2GeV beam kinetic energy in hadron and dielectron channels. In the case of π+ and π0 , high-statistics invariant-mass and angular distributions are obtained within the HADES acceptance as well as acceptance-corrected distributions, which are compared to a resonance model. The sensitivity of the data to the yield and production angular distribution of Δ (1232) and higher-lying baryon resonances is shown, and an improved parameterization is proposed. The extracted cross-sections are of special interest in the case of pp → pp η , since controversial data exist at 2.0GeV; we find \ensuremathσ=0.142±0.022 mb. Using the dielectron channels, the π0 and η Dalitz decay signals are reconstructed with yields fully consistent with the hadronic channels. The electron invariant masses and acceptance-corrected helicity angle distributions are found in good agreement with model predictions.