Prüfungsordnung für die Bachelor- und Master-Studiengänge Physik der Informationstechnologie der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main mit dem Abschluss Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) bzw. Master of Science (M.Sc.) vom 14.01.2004 in der Fassung vom 16. Juli 2007 : genehmigt mit Erlass vom 28.September 2007, Az.: III 1.3 - 422/13/10.010 – (0002)
Studienordnung für den Bachelor- und den Master-Studiengang Physik der Informationstechnologie an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main mit dem Abschluss Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) bzw. Master of Science (M.Sc.) vom 14. Januar 2004 in der Fassung vom 16. Juli 2007 : genehmigt mit Erlass vom 28. September 2007, Az.: III 1.3 – 422/13/10.010 – (0002)
Analysis of a hybrid TATA box binding protein originating from mesophilic and thermophilic donor organisms
- The TATA Box Binding Protein (TBP) is a 20 kD protein that is essential and universally conserved in eucarya and archaea. Especially among archaea, organisms can be found that live below 0°C as well as organisms that grow above 100°C. The archaeal TBPs show a high sequence identity and a similar structure consisting of α-helices and β-sheets that are arranged in a saddle-shape 2-symmetric fold. In previous studies, we have characterized the thermal stability of thermophilic and mesophilic archaeal TBPs by infrared spectroscopy and showed the correlation between the transition temperature (Tm) and the optimal growth temperature (OGT) of the respective donor organism. In this study, a “new” mutant TBP has been constructed, produced, purified and analyzed for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of thermoadaptation. The β-sheet part of the mutant consists of the TBP from Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus (OGT 65°C, MtTBP65) whose α-helices have been exchanged by those of Methanosarcina mazei (OGT 37°C, MmTBP37). The Hybrid-TBP irreversibly aggregates after thermal unfolding just like MmTBP37 and MtTBP65, but the Tm lies between that of MmTBP37 and MtTBP65 indicating that the interaction between the α-helical and β-sheet part of the TBP is crucial for the thermal stability. The temperature stability is probably encoded in the variable α-helices that interact with the highly conserved and DNA binding β-sheets.
Thermal transition temperature from twisted mass QCD
Maria Paola Lombardo
- We present the current status of lattice simulations with Nf = 2 maximally twisted mass Wilson
fermions at finite temperature. In particular, the determination of the thermal transition tempera-
ture is discussed.
Pseudo-Critical Temperature and Thermal Equation of State from Nf = 2 Twisted Mass Lattice QCD
- We report about the current status of our ongoing study of the chiral limit of two-flavor QCD at
finite temperature with twisted mass quarks. We estimate the pseudo-critical temperature Tc for
three values of the pion mass in the range of mPS ~ 300 and 500 MeV and discuss different chiral
Furthermore, we present first preliminary results for the trace anomaly, pressure and energy density.
We have studied several discretizations of Euclidean time up to Nt = 12 in order to assess
the continuum limit of the trace anomaly. From its interpolation we evaluate the pressure and
energy density employing the integral method. Here, we have focussed on two pion masses with
mPS ~ 400 and 700 MeV.
Learning sequences of actions : infant experiments and neural network models
- In our daily life, we carry out lots of tasks like typing, playing tennis, and playing the piano, without even noticing there is sequence learning involved. No matter how simple or complex they are, these tasks require the sequential planning and execution of a series of movements. As an ability of primary importance in one’s life, and an ability that everyone manages to learn, action-sequence learning has been studied by researchers from different fields: psychologists, neurophysiologists as well as roboticists. In the concept of sequence learning, perceptual learning and motor learning, implicit and explicit learning have been studied and discussed independently.
We are interested in infancy research, because infants, with underdeveloped brain functions and with limited motor ability, have little experience with the world and not yet built internal models as presumption of how to interpret the world. A series of infant experiments in the 1980s provided evidence that infants can rapidly develop anticipatory eye movements for visual events. Even when infants have no control of those spatial-temporal patterns, they can respond actually prior to the onset of the visual event, referred as "Anticipation".
In this work, we applied a gaze-contingent paradigm using real-time eye tracking to put 6- and 8-month-old infants in direct control of their visual surroundings. This paradigm allows the infant to change an image on a screen by looking at a peripheral red disc, which functions as a switch. We found that infants quickly learn to perform eye movements to trigger the appearance of new stimuli and that they anticipate the consequences of their actions in an early stage of the experiment.
Attention-shift from learning one stimulus to the next novel stimulus is important in sequence learning. In the test phase of infant visual habituation with two objects, we propose a new theory of explaining the familiarity-to-novelty shift. In our opinion an infant’s interest in a stimulus is related to its learning progress, the improvement of performance. As a consequence, infants prefer the stimulus which their current learning progress is maximal for, naturally giving rise to a familiarity-to-novelty shift in certain situations. Our network model predicts that the familiarity-to-novelty-shift only emerges for complex stimuli that produce bell-shaped learning curves after brief familiarization, but does not emerge for simple stimuli that produce exponentially decreasing learning curves or for long familiarization time, which is consistent with experimental results. This research suggests the infant's interest in a stimulus may be related to its current learning progress. This can give rise to a dynamic familiarity-to-novelty shift depending on both the infant's learning efficiency and the task complexity.
We know that for both infants and adults, the performance on certain motor-sequence tasks can be improved through practice. However, adults usually have to perform complex tasks in complicated environments; for example, learning multiple tasks is unavoidable in our daily life. In existing research, learning multiple tasks showed puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. On the one hand, a wide variety of proactive and retroactive interference effects have been observed when multiple tasks have to be learned. On the other hand, some studies have reported facilitation and transfer of learning between different tasks.
In order to find out the interaction between multiple-task learning, and to find an optimal training schedule, we use a recurrent neural network to model a series of experiments on movement sequence learning. The network model learns to carry out the correct movement sequences through training and reproduces differences between training schedules such as blocked training vs. random training in psychophysics experiments. The network model also shows striking similarity to human performance, and makes prediction for tasks similarity and different training schedules.
In conclusion, the thesis presents learning sequences of actions in infants and recurrent neural networks. We carried out a gaze-contingent experiment to study infants’ rapid anticipation of their own action outcomes, and we also constructed two recurrent neural network models, with one model explaining infant attention shift in visual habituation, and the other model directing to task similarity and training schedule in motor sequence control in adults.
A kinetic theory for spin waves in yttrium-iron garnet
- Spin waves in yttrium-iron garnet has been the subject of research for decades. Recently the report of Bose-Einstein condensation at room temperature has brought these experiments back into focus. Due to the small mass of quasiparticles compared to atoms for example, the condensation temperature can be much higher. With spin-wave quasiparticles, so-called magnons, even room temperature can be reached by externally injecting magnons. But also possible applications in information technologies are of interest. Using excitations as carriers for information instead of charges delivers a much more efficient way of processing data. Basic logical operations have already been realized. Finally the wavelength of spin waves which can be decreased to nanoscale, gives the opportunity to further miniaturize devices for receiving signals for example in smartphones.
For all of these purposes the magnon system is driven far out of equilibrium. In order to get a better fundamental understanding, we concentrate in the main part of this thesis on the nonequilibrium aspect of magnon experiments and investigate their thermalization process. In this context we develop formalisms which are of general interest and which can be adopted to many different kinds of systems.
A milestone in describing gases out of equilibrium was the Boltzmann equation discovered by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872. In this thesis extensions to the Boltzmann equation with improved approximations are derived. For the application to yttrium-iron garnet we describe the thermalization process after magnons were excited by an external microwave field.
First we consider the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena. A special property of thin films of yttrium-iron garnet is that the dispersion of magnons has its minimum at finite wave vectors which leads to an interesting behavior of the condensate. We investigate the spatial structure of the condensate using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and find that the magnons can not condensate only at the energy minimum but that also higher Fourier modes have to be occupied macroscopically. In principle this can lead to a localization on a lattice in real space.
Next we use functional renormalization group methods to go beyond the perturbation theory expressions in the Boltzmann equation. It is a difficult task to find a suitable cutoff scheme which fits to the constraints of nonequilibrium, namely causality and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem when approaching equilibrium. Therefore the cutoff scheme we developed for bosons in the context of our considerations is of general interest for the functional renormalization group. In certain approximations we obtain a system of differential equations which have a similar transition rate structure to the Boltzmann equation. We consider a model of two kinds of free bosons of which one type of boson acts as a thermal bath to the other one. Taking a suitable initial state we can use our formalism to describe the dynamics of magnons such that an enhanced occupation of the ground state is achieved. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Finally we extend our model to consider also the pumping process and the decrease of the magnon particle number till thermal equilibrium is reached again. Additional terms which explicitly break the U(1)-symmetry make it necessary to also extend the theory from which a kinetic equation can be deduced. These extensions are complicated and we therefore restrict ourselves to perturbation theory only. Because of the weak interactions in yttrium-iron garnet this provides already good results.
Development of prototype components for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment at FAIR
- The CBM experiment at future accelerator facility FAIR will investigate the properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The experimental programm is different from the heavy-ion experiments at RHIC (BNL) and LHC (CERN) that create nuclear matter at high temperatures. In contrast, the study of the QCD phase diagram in the region of the highest net baryon densities and moderate temperatures that is weakly explored will be performed with high precision. For this, collisions of different heavy-ion beams at the energies of 10–45GeV/nucleon with nuclear target will be measured.
The physics programme of the CBM experiment includes measurement of both rare probes and bulk observables that originate from various phases of a nucleus-nucleus collision. In particular, decay of particles with charm quarks can be registered by reconstructing the decay vertex detached from the primary interaction point by several hundreds of micrometers (e.g., decay length c Tau = 123 µm for D0 meson). For this, precise tracking and full event reconstruction with up to 600 charged particle tracks per event within acceptance are required. Other rare probes require operation at interaction rate of up to 10MHz. The detector system that performs tracking has to provide high position resolution on the order of 10 µm, operate at high rates and have radiation tolerant design with low material budget.
The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is being designed for charged-particle tracking in a magnetic field. The system consists of eight tracking station located in the aperture of a dipole magnet with 1T field. For tracks with momentum above 1GeV, momentum resolution of such a system is expected to be about 1%. In order to fulfill this task, thorough optimization of the detector design is required. In particular, minimal material budget has to be achieved.
Production of a detector module requires research and development activities with respect to the module components and their integration. A detector module is a basic functional unit that includes a sensor, an analogue microcable and frontend electronics mounted on a support structure. The objective of the thesis is to perform quality assurance tests of the prototype module components in order to validate the concept of the detector module and to demonstrate its operation using radioactive sources and particle beams.
Double-sided silicon microstrip detectors have been chosen as sensor technology for the STS because of the combination of a good spatial resolution, two-dimensional coordinate measurement achieved within low material budget (0.3%X0), high readout speed and sufficient radiation tolerance. Several generations of double-sided silicon microstrip sensors have been manufactured in order to explore the radiation hard design features and the concept of a large-area sensor compatible with ladder-type structure of the detector module. In particular, sensors with double metal layer on both sides and active area of 62×62mm2 have been produced. Electrical characterization of the sensors has been performed in order to establish the overall operability as well as to extract the device parameters. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage characteristics and interstrip parameters have been measured.
Readout of the sensors has been done using self-triggering front-end electronics. A front-end board has been developed based on the n-XYTER readout chip with data driven architecture and capable of operating at 32MHz readout rate. The front-end board included an external analog-to-digital converter (ADC). Calibration of the ADC has been performed using both 241Am X-ray source and external pulse generator. Threshold calibration and investigation of temperature dependence of chip parameters has been carried out.
Low-mass support structures have been developed using carbon fibre that has the rigidity to hold the detector modules and introduce minimal Coulomb scattering of the particle tracks. Analogue microcables have been produced with aluminium traces on a polyimide substrate, thus combining good electrical connection with low material budget. Microcable structure includes several layers optimized for low trace capacitance and thus low-noise performance.
A demonstrator tracking telescope has been constructed and operated in several beam tests including 2.5GeV proton beam at COSY synchrotron (Jülich). Three tracking stations have been complemented with several beam hodoscopes. Analysis of the beam data has yielded information on analogue and timing response, beam profile. Tracking and alignment information has been obtained. Beam stability has been evaluated using specially developed monitoring tools.
As a result of conducted studies, performance of the module components have been evaluated and requirements to the detector module have been formulated. Practical suggestions have been made with respect to the structure of the detector module, whereas precise definition of the final detector module design was outside of the scope of this thesis.
Dynamical equilibration and transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter
Effects of ionizing radiation on organotypic slice cultures