Peak picking NMR spectral data using non-negative matrix factorization
- Background: Simple peak-picking algorithms, such as those based on lineshape fitting, perform well when peaks are completely resolved in multidimensional NMR spectra, but often produce wrong intensities and frequencies for overlapping peak clusters. For example, NOESY-type spectra have considerable overlaps leading to significant peak-picking intensity errors, which can result in erroneous structural restraints. Precise frequencies are critical for unambiguous resonance assignments.
Results: To alleviate this problem, a more sophisticated peaks decomposition algorithm, based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), was developed. We produce peak shapes from Fourier-transformed NMR spectra. Apart from its main goal of deriving components from spectra and producing peak lists automatically, the NMF approach can also be applied if the positions of some peaks are known a priori, e.g. from consistently referenced spectral dimensions of other experiments.
Conclusions: Application of the NMF algorithm to a three-dimensional peak list of the 23 kDa bi-domain section of the RcsD protein (RcsD-ABL-HPt, residues 688-890) as well as to synthetic HSQC data shows that peaks can be picked accurately also in spectral regions with strong overlap.
CD20 and CD19 targeted vectors induce minimal activation of resting B
Christian J. Buchholz
- B lymphocytes are an important cell population of the immune system. However, until recently it was not possible to transduce resting B lymphocytes with retro- or lentiviral vectors, making them unsusceptible for genetic manipulations by these vectors. Lately, we demonstrated that lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with modified measles virus (MV) glycoproteins hemagglutinin, responsible for receptor recognition, and fusion protein were able to overcome this transduction block. They use either the natural MV receptors, CD46 and signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), for cell entry (MV-LV) or the vector particles were further modified to selectively enter via the CD20 molecule, which is exclusively expressed on B lymphocytes (CD20-LV). It has been shown previously that transduction by MV-LV does not induce B lymphocyte activation. However, if this is also true for CD20-LV is still unknown. Here, we generated a vector specific for another B lymphocyte marker, CD19, and compared its ability to transduce resting B lymphocytes with CD20-LV. The vector (CD19ds-LV) was able to stably transduce unstimulated B lymphocytes, albeit with a reduced efficiency of about 10% compared to CD20-LV, which transduced about 30% of the cells. Since CD20 as well as CD19 are closely linked to the B lymphocyte activation pathway, we investigated if engagement of CD20 or CD19 molecules by the vector particles induces activating stimuli in resting B lymphocytes. Although, activation of B lymphocytes often involves calcium influx, we did not detect elevated calcium levels. However, the activation marker CD71 was substantially up-regulated upon CD20-LV transduction and most importantly, B lymphocytes transduced with CD20-LV or CD19ds-LV entered the G1b phase of cell cycle, whereas untransduced or MV-LV transduced B lymphocytes remained in G0. Hence, CD20 and CD19 targeting vectors induce activating stimuli in resting B lymphocytes, which most likely renders them susceptible for lentiviral vector transduction.
Héctor Jairo Osorio
- The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C23H30N2O2, contains one half-mol-ecule, with a twofold axis splitting the mol-ecule in two identical halves. The structure of the racemic mixture has been reported previously [Rivera et al. (2009>) J. Chem. Crystallogr. 39, 827-830] but the enanti-omer reported here crystallized in the ortho-rhom-bic space group P21212 (Z = 2), whereas the racemate occurs in the triclinic space group P-1 (Z = 2). The observed mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by two intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, which generate rings with graph-set motif S(6). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via non-classical C-H⋯O inter-actions, which stack the mol-ecules along the b axis.
- The title compound, [FeZr2(C5H5)4Cl2(C13H18B2)], is a heteronuclear complex that consists of a ferrocenophane moiety substituted at each cyclopentadienyl (Cp) ring by a BH3 group; the BH3 group is bonded via two H atoms to the Zr atom of the zirconocene chloride moiety in a bidentate fashion. The two Cp rings of the ferrocenophane moiety are aligned at a dihedral angle of 8.9 (4)° arising from the strain of the propane-1,3-diyl bridge linking the two Cp rings. [One methylene group is disordered over two positions with a site-occupation factor of 0.552 (18) for the major occupied site.] The dihedral angles between the Cp rings at the two Zr atoms are 50.0 (3) and 51.7 (3)°. The bonding Zr(...)H distances are in the range 1.89 (7)–2.14 (7) Å. As the two Cp rings of the ferrocene unit are connected by an ansa bridge, the two Zr atoms approach each other at 6.485 (1) Å. The crystal packing features C—H(...)Cl interactions.
IAPs on the move: role of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in cell migration
Tripat Kaur Oberoi-Khanuja
- Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are a class of highly conserved proteins predominantly known for the regulation of caspases and immune signaling. However, recent evidence suggests a crucial role for these molecules in the regulation of tumor cell shape and migration by controlling MAPK, NF-κB and Rho GTPases. IAPs directly control Rho GTPases, thus regulating cell shape and migration. For instance, XIAP and cIAP1 function as the direct E3 ubiquitin ligases of Rac1 and target it for proteasomal degradation. IAPs are differentially expressed in tumor cells and have been targeted by several cancer therapeutic drugs that are currently in clinical trials. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of IAPs in the regulation of cell migration and discuss the possible implications of these observations in regulating tumor cell metastases.
A hydrophilic gel matrix for single-molecule super-resolution microscopy
Patrick J. M. Zessin
Carmen L. Krüger
- Background: Novel microscopic techniques which bypass the resolution limit in light microscopy are becoming routinely established today. The higher spatial resolution of super-resolution microscopy techniques demands for precise correction of drift, spectral and spatial offset of images recorded at different axial planes.
Methods: We employ a hydrophilic gel matrix for super-resolution microscopy of cellular structures. The matrix allows distributing fiducial markers in 3D, and using these for drift correction and multi-channel registration. We demonstrate single-molecule super-resolution microscopy with photoswitchable fluorophores at different axial planes. We calculate a correction matrix for each spectral channel, correct for drift, spectral and spatial offset in 3D.
Results and discussion: We demonstrate single-molecule super-resolution microscopy with photoswitchable fluorophores in a hydrophilic gel matrix. We distribute multi-color fiducial markers in the gel matrix and correct for drift and register multiple imaging channels. We perform two-color super-resolution imaging of click-labeled DNA and histone H2B in different axial planes, and demonstrate the quality of drift correction and channel registration quantitatively. This approach delivers robust microscopic data which is a prerequisite for data interpretation.
Voltage dependence of proton pumping by bacteriorhodopsin mutants with altered lifetime of the m intermediate
- The light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR) from Halobacterium salinarum is tightly regulated by the [H+] gradient and transmembrane potential. BR exhibits optoelectric properties, since spectral changes during the photocycle are kinetically controlled by voltage, which predestines BR for optical storage or processing devices. BR mutants with prolonged lifetime of the blue-shifted M intermediate would be advantageous, but the optoelectric properties of such mutants are still elusive. Using expression in Xenopus oocytes and two-electrode voltage-clamping, we analyzed photocurrents of BR mutants with kinetically destabilized (F171C, F219L) or stabilized (D96N, D96G) M intermediate in response to green light (to probe H+ pumping) and blue laser flashes (to probe accumulation/decay of M). These mutants have divergent M lifetimes. As for BR-WT, this strictly correlates with the voltage dependence of H+ pumping. BR-F171C and BR-F219L showed photocurrents similar to BR-WT. Yet, BR-F171C showed a weaker voltage dependence of proton pumping. For both mutants, blue laser flashes applied during and after green-light illumination showed reduced M accumulation and shorter M lifetime. In contrast, BR-D96G and BR-D96N exhibited small photocurrents, with nonlinear current-voltage curves, which increased strongly in the presence of azide. Blue laser flashes showed heavy M accumulation and prolonged M lifetime, which accounts for the strongly reduced H+ pumping rate. Hyperpolarizing potentials augmented these effects. The combination of M-stabilizing and -destabilizing mutations in BR-D96G/F171C/F219L (BR-tri) shows that disruption of the primary proton donor Asp-96 is fatal for BR as a proton pump. Mechanistically, M destabilizing mutations cannot compensate for the disruption of Asp-96. Accordingly, BR-tri and BR-D96G photocurrents were similar. However, BR-tri showed negative blue laser flash-induced currents even without actinic green light, indicating that Schiff base deprotonation in BR-tri exists in the dark, in line with previous spectroscopic investigations. Thus, M-stabilizing mutations, including the triple mutation, drastically interfere with electrochemical H+ gradient generation.
Single-molecule photobleaching reveals increased MET receptor dimerization upon ligand binding in intact cells
Dietz Marina S.
Davide M. Ferraris
Hartmut H. Niemann
- Background: The human receptor tyrosine kinase MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor are essential during embryonic development and play an important role during cancer metastasis and tissue regeneration. In addition, it was found that MET is also relevant for infectious diseases and is the target of different bacteria, amongst them Listeria monocytogenes that induces bacterial uptake through the surface protein internalin B. Binding of ligand to the MET receptor is proposed to lead to receptor dimerization. However, it is also discussed whether preformed MET dimers exist on the cell membrane.
Results: To address these issues we used single-molecule fluorescence microscopy techniques. Our photobleaching experiments show that MET exists in dimers on the membrane of cells in the absence of ligand and that the proportion of MET dimers increases significantly upon ligand binding.
Conclusions: Our results indicate that partially preformed MET dimers may play a role in ligand binding or MET signaling. The addition of the bacterial ligand internalin B leads to an increase of MET dimers which is in agreement with the model of ligand-induced dimerization of receptor tyrosine kinases.
NMR Solution Structure of a Chymotrypsin Inhibitor from the Taiwan Cobra Naja naja atra
- The Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) chymotrypsin inhibitor (NACI) consists of 57 amino acids and is related to other Kunitz-type inhibitors such as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) and Bungarus fasciatus fraction IX (BF9), another chymotrypsin inhibitor. Here we present the solution structure of NACI. We determined the NMR structure of NACI with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.37 Å for the backbone atoms and 0.73 Å for the heavy atoms on the basis of 1,075 upper distance limits derived from NOE peaks measured in its NOESY spectra. To investigate the structural characteristics of NACI, we compared the three-dimensional structure of NACI with BPTI and BF9. The structure of the NACI protein comprises one 310-helix, one α-helix and one double-stranded antiparallel β-sheet, which is comparable with the secondary structures in BPTI and BF9. The RMSD value between the mean structures is 1.09 Å between NACI and BPTI and 1.27 Å between NACI and BF9. In addition to similar secondary and tertiary structure, NACI might possess similar types of protein conformational fluctuations as reported in BPTI, such as Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond isomerization, based on line broadening of resonances from residues which are mainly confined to a region around the Cys14–Cys38 disulfide bond.
A gp41 MPER-specific llama VHH requires a hydrophobic CDR3 for neutralization but not for antigen recognition
David Lutje Hulsik
Nika M. Strokappe
Mohamed El Khattabi
Laura E. McCoy
Alexandre M. J. J. Bonvin
Johannes P. M. Langedijk
Anna Forsman Quigley
Marlén M. I. Aasa-Chapman
Michael S. Seaman
Robin A. Weiss
C. Theo Verrips
- The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by the broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. To date, no immunization regimen in animals or humans has produced HIV-1 neutralizing MPER-specific antibodies. We immunized llamas with gp41-MPER proteoliposomes and selected a MPER-specific single chain antibody (VHH), 2H10, whose epitope overlaps with that of mAb 2F5. Bi-2H10, a bivalent form of 2H10, which displayed an approximately 20-fold increased affinity compared to the monovalent 2H10, neutralized various sensitive and resistant HIV-1 strains, as well as SHIV strains in TZM-bl cells. X-ray and NMR analyses combined with mutagenesis and modeling revealed that 2H10 recognizes its gp41 epitope in a helical conformation. Notably, tryptophan 100 at the tip of the long CDR3 is not required for gp41 interaction but essential for neutralization. Thus bi-2H10 is an anti-MPER antibody generated by immunization that requires hydrophobic CDR3 determinants in addition to epitope recognition for neutralization similar to the mode of neutralization employed by mAbs 2F5 and 4E10.