Ein Personal Trainer mit Allround-Angebot : Goethe-Unibator ebnet Lehramtsstudenten den Weg in die Selbstständigkeit
- Existenzgründung mit dem Goethe-Unibator : Der Goethe-Unibator wurde 2006 von Prof. Dr. Roberto V. Zicari und Prof. Martin Natter gegründet, um Studierenden, wissenschaftlichen Mitarbeitern und Alumni bei der Unternehmensgründung zu helfen. Das Dienstleistungsangebot des Goethe-Unibators begleitet die Unternehmer von der kreativen Ideenfindung über die Analyse und kritische Prüfung des Vorhabens bis zum optimierten Businessplan und der Marktreife. Hierfür stellt das Existenzgründungsnetzwerk Büroräume und technische Infrastruktur zur Verfügung, vor allem aber fachliche Unterstützung. Neben dem qualifizierten Team des Goethe-Unibators stehen den Gründern Professoren als Mentoren über den gesamten Förderzeitraum zur Seite. Zudem steht das umfangreiche und fachübergreifende Expertennetzwerk zur Verfügung. Das Netzwerk besteht aus Professoren der Universität Frankfurt und anderer Hochschulen sowie Experten aus der nationalen und internationalen Wirtschaft und Gründerszene.
N-terminally myristoylated feline foamy virus Gag allows Env-independent budding of sub-viral particles
- Foamy viruses (FVs) are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP) release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV), particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal) overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N-terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation.
Functional characterization of the Jumonji C domain-containing protein 6 (Jmjd6) in the vascular system
- Conclusion: Proteins containing a Jumonji C (JmjC) domain appear in almost all living organisms and catalyze a variety of oxidation reactions. Therefore, they are important regulators in many biological processes such as proliferation and differentiation. They act either as protein hydroxylases, histone demethylases or by regulate mRNA splicing. Given the fact that some of the JmjC domain-containing proteins are shown to be upregulated in response to hypoxia as well as the dependency of JmjC domain catalytic activity on oxygen led to the assumption of an involvement in angiogenesis. For Jmjd6, a member of the JmjC domain-containing protein family, a regulatory involvement in mRNA splicing has been shown. The Jmjd6-/- mouse dies perinatally due to several severe organ malformations, especially in the heart. Despite the pale appearance, the growth retardation and the cardiac defects, it is unclear whether these mice exhibit defects of cells comprising the vasculature. Therefore, the involvement of Jmjd6 in angiogenesis was examined in vitro using angiogenesis assays as well as in vivo using the Jmjd6+/- mouse. An siRNA-mediated knockdown of Jmjd6 in ECs significantly impaired the formation of capillary-like networks in the tube formation assay as well as sprouting in the spheroid assay. Moreover, after siRNA-mediated knockdown of Jmjd6 in ECs cell migration was significantly reduced. These findings were confirmed in the matrigel plug assay in vivo. Implanted matrigel plugs of Jmjd6+/- mice exhibited significantly less perfused vessels compared to wildtype littermates. Furthermore, cultured lung ECs from Jmjd6+/- mice exhibited impaired network forming activity ex vivo compared to cells isolated from wildtype littermates. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the requirement of Jmjd6 in angiogenesis, an Affymetrix exon-array was performed, which allows detection of changes in gene expression as well as splicing. The siRNA-mediated knockdown of Jmjd6 altered the expression of genes known to play a role in vascular biology. The bioinformatic assessment of alternative splice variants revealed that Jmjd6 silencing affects the splicing of the VEGF receptor 1 (Flt1). Differential splicing of Flt1 was shown to generate a short and soluble form of Flt1 (sFlt1), which sequestrates VEGF and PlGF, and thereby inhibits angiogenesis. In particular, a significant increase in sFlt1 expression was observed. Jmjd6 was recently reported to hydroxylate the splicing factor U2AF65. Therefore, we investigated whether U2AF65 might mediate Flt1 splicing and binds to Flt1 mRNA. Indeed, U2AF65 co-immunoprecipitated with Jmjd6 in ECs, while an interaction of U2AF65 with sFlt1 was demonstrated. Moreover, inhibition of Jmjd6 catalytic function by reduced oxygen concentration altered splicing of Flt1 resulted in an increase of the sFlt1 splice variant. Finally, saturating concentrations of VEGF or PlGF or neutralizing antibodies against sFlt1 significantly reduced the inhibition of sprouting caused by Jmjd6 knockdown in vitro.
Collectively, our results indicate that Jmjd6 has an essential role in the oxygen-dependent regulation of angiogenesis by controlling the splicing of Flt1 mRNA, thereby adjusting the generation of the anti-angiogenic short splice variant sFlt1. Several publications demonstrated a major importance for sFlt1 as a biomarker for many severe human diseases such as preeclampsia, sepsis, cancer, myocardial infarction as well as chronic heart failure. Therefore, the identification of the molecular mechanism behind the generation of sFlt1 might enable the development of new or more precise clinical markers for the diagnosis of the corresponding diseases. Furthermore, the discovery of the enzymes involved in the generation of sFlt1 provides further possibilities to modulate sFlt1 levels and thereby may potentially gives rise to the development of new therapies.
Über den Widerspruch von religiöser Hoffnung und politischer Analyse in Adam Smith Theorie des freien Marktes
- Die zentrale These des vorliegenden Aufsatzes ist es, dass es ein Adam Smith-Problem im traditionellen Sinne nicht gibt, aber sehr wohl einen Selbstwiderspruch in Adam Smith ökonomischer Theorie.
Der Aufsatz behandelt zunächst die enge systematische Verbindung von Smith ökonomischer und ethischer Theorie. Die Verbindung beruht auf der Annahme eines höchsten Wesens und einer daraus gefolgerten prästabilisierenden Harmonie Dem religiösen Vertrauen auf eine natürliche Ordnung korresponiert der Glaube an die Gerechtigkeit des Marktes. Smith weitere politische Analyse produziert allerdings einen Selbstwiderspruch. Smith zeigt auf, dass die unternehmerischen Eigeninteressen dem Allgemeininteresse der Gesellschaft widersprechen und die Unternehmer zudem virtuoser und erfolgreicher beim Durchsetzen ihrer eigenen Interessen agieren als andere Marktakteure. Dennoch hält Smith an der Annahme fest, der Markt entfalte eine harmonisierende und den allseitigen Wohlstand fördernde Wirkung. Diese Annahme mutiert bei seinen Epigonen zu einer ontologischen Gewissheit.
Evidence regarding clinical use of microvolt T-wave alternans
Stefan H. Hohnloser
Richard J. Cohen
- Background: Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing in many studies has proven to be a highly accurate predictor of ventricular tachyarrhythmic events (VTEs) in patients with risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD) but without a prior history of sustained VTEs (primary prevention patients). In some recent studies involving primary prevention patients with prophylactically implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), MTWA has not performed as well. Objective: This study examined the hypothesis that MTWA is an accurate predictor of VTEs in primary prevention patients without implanted ICDs, but not of appropriate ICD therapy in such patients with implanted ICDs. Methods: This study identified prospective clinical trials evaluating MTWA measured using the spectral analytic method in primary prevention populations and analyzed studies in which: (1) few patients had implanted ICDs and as a result none or a small fraction (≤15%) of the reported end point VTEs were appropriate ICD therapies (low ICD group), or (2) many of the patients had implanted ICDs and the majority of the reported end point VTEs were appropriate ICD therapies (high ICD group). Results: In the low ICD group comprising 3,682 patients, the hazard ratio associated with a nonnegative versus negative MTWA test was 13.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.5 to 30.4) and the annual event rate among the MTWA-negative patients was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.1% to 0.5%). In contrast, in the high ICD group comprising 2,234 patients, the hazard ratio was only 1.6 (95% CI: 1.2 to 2.1) and the annual event rate among the MTWA-negative patients was elevated to 5.4% (95% CI: 4.1% to 6.7%). In support of these findings, we analyzed published data from the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Trial II (MADIT II) and Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT) trials and determined that in those trials only 32% of patients who received appropriate ICD therapy averted an SCD. Conclusion: This study found that MTWA testing using the spectral analytic method provides an accurate means of predicting VTEs in primary prevention patients without implanted ICDs; in particular, the event rate is very low among such patients with a negative MTWA test. In prospective trials of ICD therapy, the number of patients receiving appropriate ICD therapy greatly exceeds the number of patients who avert SCD as a result of ICD therapy. In trials involving patients with implanted ICDs, these excess appropriate ICD therapies seem to distribute randomly between MTWA-negative and MTWA-nonnegative patients, obscuring the predictive accuracy of MTWA for SCD. Appropriate ICD therapy is an unreliable surrogate end point for SCD. Key words: Arrhythmia; Sudden cardiac death; Cardiac arrest; ICD; T-wave alternans; Surrogate endpoint; Ventricular tachyarrhythmic event; Primary prevention
The perfect crime? : CCSVI not leaving a trace in MS
Christoph A. Mayer
Ingo Jürgen Bechmann
- Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, believed to be triggered by an autoimmune reaction to myelin. Recently, a fundamentally different pathomechanism termed ‘chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency’ (CCSVI) was proposed, provoking significant attention in the media and scientific community. Methods: Twenty MS patients (mean age 42.2±13.3 years; median Extended Disability Status Scale 3.0, range 0–6.5) were compared with 20 healthy controls. Extra- and intracranial venous flow direction was assessed by colour-coded duplex sonography, and extracranial venous cross-sectional area (VCSA) of the internal jugular and vertebral veins (IJV/VV) was measured in B-mode to assess the five previously proposed CCSVI criteria. IJV-VCSA <= 0.3 cm2 indicated ‘stenosis,’ and IJV-VCSA decrease from supine to upright position ‘reverted postural control.’ The sonographer, data analyser and statistician were blinded to the patient/control status of the participants. Results: No participant showed retrograde flow of cervical or intracranial veins. IJV-VCSA <= 0.3 cm2 was found in 13 MS patients versus 16 controls (p=0.48). A decrease in IJV-VCSA from supine to upright position was observed in all participants, but this denotes a physiological finding. No MS patient and one control had undetectable IJV flow despite deep inspiration (p=0.49). Only one healthy control and no MS patients fulfilled at least two criteria for CCSVI. Conclusions: This triple-blinded extra- and transcranial duplex sonographic assessment of cervical and cerebral veins does not provide supportive evidence for the presence of CCSVI in MS patients. The findings cast serious doubt on the concept of CCSVI in MS.
Functional dissection of the proton pumping modules of mitochondrial complex I
- Mitochondrial complex I, the largest and most complicated proton pump of the respiratory chain, links the electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone to the pumping of four protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space. In humans, defects in complex I are involved in a wide range of degenerative disorders. Recent progress in the X-ray structural analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic complex I confirmed that the redox reactions are confined entirely to the hydrophilic peripheral arm of the L-shaped molecule and take place at a remarkable distance from the membrane domain. While this clearly implies that the proton pumping within the membrane arm of complex I is driven indirectly via long-range conformational coupling, the molecular mechanism and the number, identity, and localization of the pump-sites remains unclear. Here, we report that upon deletion of the gene for a small accessory subunit of the Yarrowia complex I, a stable subcomplex (nb8m delta) is formed that lacks the distal part of the membrane domain as revealed by single particle analysis. The analysis of the subunit composition of holo and subcomplex by three complementary proteomic approaches revealed that two (ND4 and ND5) of the three subunits with homology to bacterial Mrp-type Na+/H+ antiporters that have been discussed as prime candidates for harbouring the proton pumps were missing in nb8m delta. Nevertheless, nb8m delta still pumps protons at half the stoichiometry of the complete enzyme. Our results provide evidence that the membrane arm of complex I harbours two functionally distinct pump modules that are connected in series by the long helical transmission element recently identified by X-ray structural analysis.
Therapeutic efficacy of TBC3711 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension
Bhola K. Dahal
Ralf Peter Louis Brandes
Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani
Ralph T. Schermuly
- Background: Endothelin-1 signalling plays an important role in pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Although different endothelin-A receptor antagonists are developed, a novel therapeutic option to cure the disease is still needed. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist TBC3711 in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Methods: Monocrotaline-injected male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized and treated orally from day 21 to 35 either with TBC3711 (Dose: 30 mg/kg body weight/day) or placebo. Echocardiographic measurements of different hemodynamic and right-heart hypertrophy parameters were performed. After day 35, rats were sacrificed for invasive hemodynamic and right-heart hypertrophy measurements. Additionally, histologic assessment of pulmonary vascular and right-heart remodelling was performed. Results: The novel endothelin-A receptor antagonist TBC3711 significantly attenuated monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension, as evident from improved hemodynamics and right-heart hypertrophy in comparison with placebo group. In addition, muscularization and medial wall thickness of distal pulmonary vessels were ameliorated. The histologic evaluation of the right ventricle showed a significant reduction in fibrosis and cardiomyocyte size, suggesting an improvement in right-heart remodelling. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist TBC3711 demonstrates therapeutic benefit in rats with established pulmonary hypertension, thus representing a useful therapeutic approach for treatment of pulmonary hypertension.
Ordnung der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main für den Masterstudiengang Bioinformatik in der Fassung vom 06.12.2010 : vorläufig genehmigt mit Beschluss des Präsidiums vom 01.02.2011
Ordnung des Fachbereichs Biowissenschaften der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität für den Masterstudiengang Molekulare Biowissenschaften mit dem Abschluss "Master of Science" (M.Sc.) vom 21. Februar 2011 : genehmigt vom Präsidium der Johann Wolfgang Goethe–Universität Frankfurt am Main am 27. September 2011