Super-resolution microscopy reveals specific recruitment of HIV-1 envelope proteins to viral assembly sites dependent on the envelope C-terminal tail
- The inner structural Gag proteins and the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) traffic independently to the plasma membrane, where they assemble the nascent virion. HIV-1 carries a relatively low number of glycoproteins in its membrane, and the mechanism of Env recruitment and virus incorporation is incompletely understood. We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. Distinctive HIV-1 Gag assembly sites were readily detected and were associated with Env clusters that always extended beyond the actual Gag assembly site and often showed enrichment at the periphery and surrounding the assembly site. Formation of these Env clusters depended on the presence of other HIV-1 proteins and on the long cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT deletion, a matrix mutation affecting Env incorporation or Env expression in the absence of other HIV-1 proteins led to much smaller Env clusters, which were not enriched at viral assembly sites. These results show that Env is recruited to HIV-1 assembly sites in a CT-dependent manner, while Env(ΔCT) appears to be randomly incorporated. The observed Env accumulation surrounding Gag assemblies, with a lower density on the actual bud, could facilitate viral spread . Keeping Env molecules on the nascent virus low may be important for escape from the humoral immune response, while cell-cell contacts mediated by surrounding Env molecules could promote HIV-1 transmission through the virological synapse.
Perfluoraryl-substituierte Borate und Borane zur Hydroborierung und Katalyse von Diels-Alder-Reaktionen
- Lewis-azide Organoborverbindungen finden Verwendung als Anionensensoren und als (Co)katalysatoren in der Metallocen-vermittelten Olefinpolymerisation bzw. in elektrocyclischen Reaktionen. Mit Lewis-Basen, die sterisch anspruchsvolle Reste tragen, können sie keine stabilen Addukte ausbilden. Solche Systeme werden als „frustrierte Lewispaare“ (FLPs) bezeichnet. Diese zeigen eine besondere kooperative Reaktivität gegenüber kleinen Molekülen und haben sich insbesondere in der metallfreien Aktivierung molekularen Wasserstoffs bewährt. Ein Ziel dieser Arbeit war die Entwicklung einer kostengünstigen, ungefährlichen und einfachen Synthese von (C6F5)2BH („Piers' Boran“). Dieses stark elektrophile Reagenz wird in der FLP-Chemie eingesetzt und monohydroboriert selektiv terminale C≡C-Funktionen. Die literaturbekannten Darstellungsmethoden dieses Borans sind präparativ aufwendig oder erfordern kostspielige Startmaterialien. Die Hydrid-Abstraktion aus dem [(C6F5)2BH2]−-Anion, welches aus einer Eintopfreaktion zwischen BH3·SMe2, C6F5MgBr und ClSiMe3 erhalten wurde und je nach Aufarbeitung in der Zusammensetzung [Mg2(Et2O)3Br2Cl][(C6F5)2BH2] bzw. [Mg(Et2O)2][(C6F5)2BH2]2 kristallisiert, bietet eine Methode zur insitu-Präparation von Piers' Boran. Es kann mit terminalen Alkinen als Monohydroborierungsprodukt oder mit Dimethylsulfid als Lewis-Säure-Base-Addukt abgefangen werden (Abbildung 1). Zusätzlich sind sowohl das Salz [Mg2(Et2O)3Br2Cl][(C6F5)2BH2] als auch das Addukt (C6F5)2BH·SMe2 geeignete Präkursoren für die literaturbekannten FLPs I und II...Mit dem Ziel der Synthese eines Methylen-verbrückten Boran-Phosphans zur H2-Aktivierung wurde der Borinsäureester (C6F5)2BOEt mit dem Lithiumorganyl LiCH2PtBu2 umgesetzt. Dies lieferte nicht die Zielverbindung (C6F5)2BCH2PtBu2, sondern in sehr selektiver Reaktion das bicyclische Phosphoniumborat (EtO)(C6F5)B(CH2)(C6F4)PtBu2 ((III)OEt), welches mit HCl quantitativ zum Chlorid-Addukt (III)Cl reagiert (Abbildung 2). Dadurch wird am (chiralen) Borzentrum eine bessere Abgangsgruppe eingeführt und die luftund wasserstabile Spezies (III)OEt aktiviert. Der Fluorierungsgrad in (III)Cl kann durch Austausch des exocyclischen C6F5-Restes gegen eine Phenylgruppe oder durch eine F/H- bzw. F/tBu-Substitution am verbrückenden C6F4-Ring variiert werden. Nach Ersatz einer tBu-Funktion am Phosphoratom gegen eine Methylgruppe wurde ein zweites Chiralitätszentrum in das Molekülgerüst des Phosphoniumborats eingeführt. Mit Silbersalzen schwach koordinierender Anionen (AgA) reagiert (III)Cl quantitativ zu den entsprechenden Addukten (III)A (A = Acetat, Trifluoracetat, Nitrat, Tosylat, Triflat). Ungeladene Donoren (Do) verdrängen den Triflat-Rest in (III)OTf und führen zu den Salzen [(III)Do]+[OTf]− (Do = OPEt3, Pyridin, H2O)...Das freie Boran [III]+ existiert nur in Gegenwart des sehr schwach koordinierenden Anions [Al[OC(CF3)3]4]–. Mit einer Gutmann-Akzeptornummer (AN) von AN = 87.3 ist es eine stärkere Lewis-Säure als die ungeladene Verbindung (C6F5)3B (AN = 80.0). Auch die – im Vergleich zu (C6F5)3B·Do – kürzeren B–O/N-Bindungslängen in [(III)Do][OTf] (Do = OPEt3, Pyridin, H2O) bestätigen diese Beobachtung. Sowohl die freie Lewis-Säure [III]+ als auch ihr Triflat-Addukt (III)OTf katalysieren die Diels-Alder-Reaktion zwischen Cyclopentadien und 2,5-Dimethyl-,4-benzochinon. Die Reaktion läuft in Gegenwart von [III]+ schneller ab als in Anwesenheit von (III)OTf. Dennoch hat das Triflat-Addukt gegenüber [III]+ den Vorteil, dass im Laufe der Cycloaddition keine konkurrierende Polymerisation des Cyclopentadiens auftritt.
IAPs on the move: role of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins in cell migration
Tripat Kaur Oberoi-Khanuja
- Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are a class of highly conserved proteins predominantly known for the regulation of caspases and immune signaling. However, recent evidence suggests a crucial role for these molecules in the regulation of tumor cell shape and migration by controlling MAPK, NF-κB and Rho GTPases. IAPs directly control Rho GTPases, thus regulating cell shape and migration. For instance, XIAP and cIAP1 function as the direct E3 ubiquitin ligases of Rac1 and target it for proteasomal degradation. IAPs are differentially expressed in tumor cells and have been targeted by several cancer therapeutic drugs that are currently in clinical trials. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of IAPs in the regulation of cell migration and discuss the possible implications of these observations in regulating tumor cell metastases.
Development and application of optogenetic methods to functionally characterize synaptic transmission and neural circuits in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Real-Time analysis and visualization for single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy
- Accurate multidimensional localization of isolated fluorescent emitters is a time consuming process in single-molecule based super-resolution microscopy. We demonstrate a functional method for real-time reconstruction with automatic feedback control, without compromising the localization accuracy. Compatible with high frame rates of EM-CCD cameras, it relies on a wavelet segmentation algorithm, together with a mix of CPU/GPU implementation. A combination with Gaussian fitting allows direct access to 3D localization. Automatic feedback control ensures optimal molecule density throughout the acquisition process. With this method, we significantly improve the efficiency and feasibility of localization-based super-resolution microscopy.
Willkommen im Molekül-Kino : die drei Emmy-Noether-Stipendiaten am FB 14
Genome-wide multi-parametric analysis of H2AX or γH2AX distributions during ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage response
Maria Cristina Cardoso
- Background: After induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), the DNA damage response (DDR) is activated. One of the earliest events in DDR is the phosphorylation of serine 139 on the histone variant H2AX (gH2AX) catalyzed by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases-related kinases. Despite being extensively studied, H2AX distribution across the genome and gH2AX spreading around DSBs sites in the context of different chromatin compaction states or transcription are yet to be fully elucidated.
Materials and methods: gH2AX was induced in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) by exposure to 10 Gy X-rays (250 kV, 16 mA). Samples were incubated 0.5, 3 or 24 hours post irradiation to investigate early, intermediate and late stages of DDR, respectively. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was performed to select H2AX, H3 and gH2AX-enriched chromatin fractions. Chromatin-associated DNA was then sequenced by Illumina ChIP-Seq platform. HepG2 gene expression and histone modification (H3K36me3, H3K9me3) ChIP-Seq profiles were retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (accession numbers GSE30240 and GSE26386, respectively).
Results: First, we combined G/C usage, gene content, gene expression or histone modification profiles (H3K36me3, H3K9me3) to define genomic compartments characterized by different chromatin compaction states or transcriptional activity. Next, we investigated H3, H2AX and gH2AX distributions in such defined compartments before and after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) to study DNA repair kinetics during DDR. Our sequencing results indicate that H2AX distribution followed H3 occupancy and, thus, the nucleosome pattern. The highest H2AX and H3 enrichment was observed in transcriptionally active compartments (euchromatin) while the lowest was found in low G/C and gene-poor compartments (heterochromatin). Under physiological conditions, the body of highly and moderately transcribed genes was devoid of gH2AX, despite presenting high H2AX levels. gH2AX accumulation was observed in 5’ or 3’ flanking regions, instead. The same genes showed a prompt gH2AX accumulation during the early stage of DDR which then decreased over time as DDR proceeded.
Finally, during the late stage of DDR the residual gH2AX signal was entirely retained in heterochromatic compartments. At this stage, euchromatic compartments were completely devoid of gH2AX despite presenting high levels of non-phosphorylated H2AX.
Conclusions: We show that gH2AX distribution ultimately depends on H2AX occupancy, the latter following H3 occupancy and, thus, nucleosome pattern. Both H2AX and H3 levels were higher in actively transcribed compartments. However, gH2AX levels were remarkably low over the body of actively transcribed genes suggesting that transcription levels antagonize gH2AX spreading. Moreover, repair processes did not take place uniformly across the genome; rather, DNA repair was affected by genomic location and transcriptional activity. We propose that higher H2AX density in euchromaticcompartments results in high relative gH2AXconcentration soon after the activation of DDR, thus favoring the recruitment of the DNA repair machinery to those compartments. When the damage is repaired and gH2AX is removed, its residual fraction is retained in the heterochromatic compartments which are then targeted and repaired at later times.
TIP47 plays a crucial role in HCV morphogenesis and release by its interaction with viral nonstructural protein 5A and host protein Rab9
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly and production is closely linked to lipid metabolism. Indeed, lipid droplets (LD) have been shown to serve as a platform for HCV assembly. To investigate the effect of HCV on the host cell proteome, 2D-gelelectrophoresis with subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of HCV replicating and the corresponding control cells were done. Based on this analysis, it was found out that HCV-replicating Huh7.5 cells revealed lower amounts of TIP47 (tail interacting protein of 47kD) compared to HCV-negative cells. TIP47, a cytoplasmic sorting factor, has been shown to be associated with lipid droplets. As it is known that HCV-replication and assembly takes place at the so called ”membranous web” that is composed of LDs and rearranged ER-derived membranes, it was tempting to investigate the role of TIP47 in HCV life-cycle. Western blot analysis did reveal that overexpression of TIP47 in HCV replicating Huh7.5 cells leads to decreased amounts of the HCV core protein while the levels of non-structural protein (NS)5A and intracellular HCVgenomes are increased. Moreover, in TIP47 overproducing cells higher amounts of infectious HCV particles are secreted. Vice versa, inhibition of TIP47 expression by siRNA results in a decreased level of intracellular NS5A, increased amounts of intracellular core and less infectious viral particles in the supernatant. In addition, complete silencing of TIP47 by lentiviral transduction abolishes HCV replication that can be restored by transfection of these cells with a TIP47 expression construct. It has been shown recently that apoE binds to NS5A and that this interaction plays an important role for the HCV life cycle (Benga et al., 2010). The C-terminal part of TIP47 harbours a 4 helix bundle motif and displays high homology to the N-terminus of apoE. Therefore, we investigated the interaction of NS5A and TIP47. Confocal double immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that a fraction of NS5A colocalizes with TIP47. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments and a yeast-two-hybrid screening confirmed the interaction between NS5A and TIP47 and deletion of the N-terminal-TIP47-PAT domain abolishes this interaction. From this we conclude that the TIP47-NS5A interaction is required for virus morphogenesis. Moreover, TIP47 can bind to Rab9 and this is relevant for targeting the viral particle out of the cell. In accordance to this, TIP47 was identified to be associated to the viral particle. Mutants of TIP47 that fail to bind Rab9 reveal lower amounts and a changed distribution of the HCV core protein. Furthermore, we could see that the core staining colocalizes with subcellular structures that were identified as autophagosomes using a p62-specific antibody which is a specific autophagosome-marker. Based on this, we hypothized that destruction of the Rab9 binding domain misdirects the viral particle towards the lysosomal compartment.
For the first time it could be shown that TIP47 interacts with NS5A and is associated to the viral particle, therefore plays a crucial role for the virus morphogenesis and secretion of the viral article.
Taken together, these results indicate that TIP47 is an essential cellular factor for the life cycle of HCV Abstract and might be used as target for antiviral treatment, e.g. by targeting the NS5A-TIP47 interaction, based on small molecules that mimic the NS5A-specific sequence that binds to TIP47 which might result in a competition of the TIP47/NS5A interaction.
Biochemical and structural investigations on the architecture of the F o complex from "Ilyobacter tartaricus" ATP synthase
- The universal biological energy currency adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is synthesized by the F1Fo-ATP synthase in most living organisms. The overall structure and function of F-type ATPases is conserved in the different organisms. The F1Fo-ATP synthase consist of two domains; the soluble F1 complex has the subunit stoichiometry α3β3γδε and the membrane embedded Fo complex consists of subunits ab2c10-15 in its simplest form found in bacteria. F1 and Fo both function as reversible rotary motors that are connected by a central stalk (γε) and a peripheral stalk (b2δ).
For ATP synthesis, the electrochemical energy formed by a proton or sodium ion gradient is required. The ion translocation across the Fo subcomplex induces torque in the motor part of the enzyme (cnγε), which causes conformational changes in the α3β3 domain leading to ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) catalyzed in the β-subunits. ATP hydrolysis causes a reverse torque in the Fo subcomplex triggering uphill ion translocation from cytoplasm to periplasm, and the enzyme functions as an ion pump.
The ATP synthesis mechanism is well understood, since several high-resolution structures of F1 are available. In contrast, the ion translocation mechanism across the membrane, mediated by the Fo subcomplex, is not understood in its structural detail.
Subunit a and the c-ring form an ion pathway, but subunit b is needed to form an active ion translocation pathway in both H+- and Na+-dependent systems. Several high-resolution structures of c-rings have provided insights in the ion translocation mechanism. The different ion translocation models based on biochemical, biophysical and structural analysis are in agreement in the fact that ions are translocated through a periplasmic ion access pathway in subunit a to the middle of the membrane and there to the binding site of a c-subunit. After almost a whole rotation of the c-ring the ion returns into the a-c interface, where it can be released to the cytoplasm. In the different models the cytoplasmic access pathway has been proposed to be located in subunit a, at the a-c interface or within the c-ring. The driving force of torque generation has been proposed to be the pH gradient or membrane potential. Several biochemical studies show that a conserved arginine in helix four of subunit a (R226 in Ilyobacter tartaricus or R210 in Escherichia coli)plays a critical role in the ion translocation. The arginine has been proposed to function as an electrostatic separator between the cytoplasmic and periplasmic pathways and as a mediator of the ion exchange into the c-ring ion-binding site.
Structural data of a related enzyme (V1Vo-ATPase from Thermus thermophilus) has provided insight into the helical arrangement of the ion translocating subunits I and Lring (related to subunit a and the c-ring). These structures indicated a small interface between subunit I and the L-ring, and two four-helix bundles in the N-terminal domain of subunit I were proposed to build the periplasmic and cytoplasmic ion pathways. To comprehend the ion-translocation and torque generation mechanism in F1Fo-ATP synthase, structural data of an intact a-c complex is needed.
The goal of this work was to obtain structural data of subunit a, most preferably in a complex with the c-ring or additionally with subunit b. Therefore, a new purification procedure for the I. tartaricus Fo-subcomplex, heterologously expressed in E. coli cells, was established. The purified Fo was characterized biochemically and by Laserinduced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectrometry (LILBID-MS). These analyses showed that pure and completely assembled Fo containing all its subunits in the correct stoichiometry (ab2c11) was obtained. The purified Fo complex was stable at 4°C for several months and at room temperature in the presence of lipids for several weeks. A lipid analysis was performed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to investigate the qualitative lipid composition of I. tartaricus whole lipid extract and various I. tartaricus F1Fo isolates. The whole lipid extract contained PC, PG and PE lipids and probably cardiolipin. PC, PG and PE lipids were bound to wild type I. tartaricus F1Fo, whereas recombinant I. tartaricus F1Fo did not have any bound lipids, but was able to bind the synthetic lipids POPC and POPG if they were provided during the purification.
For subsequent structural studies the purified Fo was subjected to two-dimensional (2D) crystallization trials. Vesicles and sheets tightly packed with protein and crystals with a rare plane group for I. tartaricus c11 (p121) were obtained. The c-ring was visible in the CCD images, and immunogold-labeling revealed the presence of the His-tagged a-subunit in the reconstituted vesicles. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging showed protein densities next to the c-rings, which protruded less from the membrane (0.4±0.1 nm) than the c-ring (0.7±0.1 nm). These protein densities presumably belonged to subunit a.
Cryo-electronmicroscopy (cryo-EM) was used to collect data of the p121 crystals and a merged projection density map was calculated to 7.0 Å resolution. The unit cell of the crystals (81 × 252 Å) contained two asymmetric units with three c-rings in each and next to the c11-rings new prominent densities were visible. In each extra density up to 7 transmembrane helices were visible, belonging to the stator subunit a and/or subunit b. To elucidate whether there are conserved elements in the three extra densities non-crystallographic averaging was applied using a single-particle approach.
Six possible arrangements for the c-rings and the extra densities were identified and used for the averaging. The extra densities were enhanced only in one of the possible arrangements. The average showed a four-helix bundle and a fifth helix in close proximity to the c-ring. Two more helices were present in each position but their position was ambivalent. The data obtained in this work provides the first insight in the helical arrangement in the a-c interface of F1Fo-ATP synthase.
Pulsed EPR characterization of membrane transport protein complexes
- Pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for measuring nanometer distances in spin-labeled systems and recently is increasingly applied to membrane proteins. However, after reconstitution of labeled proteins into liposomes, spin labels often exhibit a much faster transversal relaxation (Tm) than in detergent micelles, thus limiting application of the method in lipid bilayers. In the first part of the thesis, optimization of transversal relaxation in phospholipid membranes was systematically investigated by use of spin-labeled derivatives of stearic acid and phosphatidylcholine as well as spin-labeled derivatives of the channel-forming peptide gramicidin A under the conditions typically employed for PELDOR distance measurements. Our results clearly show that dephasing due to instantaneous diffusion that depends on dipolar interaction among electron spins is an important contributor to the fast echo decay in cases of high local concentrations of spin labels in membranes. The main difference between spin labels in detergent micelles and membranes is their local concentration. Consequently, avoiding spin aggregation and suppressing instantaneous diffusion is the key step for maximizing PELDOR sensitivity in lipid membranes. Even though proton spin diffusion is an important relaxation mechanism, only in samples with low local concentrations does deuteration of acyl chains and buffer significantly prolong Tm. In these cases, values of up to 7 μs have been achieved. Furthermore, our study revealed that membrane composition and labeling position in the membrane can also affect Tm, either by promoting the segregation of spin-labeled species or by altering their exposure to matrix protons. Effects of other experimental parameters including temperature (<50 K), presence of oxygen, and cryoprotectant type are negligible under our experimental conditions.
In the second part of the thesis, inhomogeneous distribution of spin-labels in detergent micelles has been studied. A common approach in PELDOR is measuring the distance between two covalently attached spin labels in a macromolecule or singly-labeled components of an oligomer. This situation has been described as a spin-cluster. The PELDOR signal, however, does not only contain the desired dipolar coupling between the spin-labels of the molecule or cluster under study. In samples of finite concentration the dipolar coupling between the spin-labels of the randomly distributed molecules or spin-clusters also contributes significantly. In homogeneous frozen solutions or lipid vesicle membranes this second contribution can be considered to be an exponential or stretched exponential decay, respectively. In this study, it is shown that this assumption is not valid in detergent micelles. Spin-labeled fatty acids that are randomly partitioned into different detergent micelles give rise to PELDOR time traces which clearly deviate from stretched exponential decays. As a main conclusion a PELDOR signal deviating from a stretched exponential decay does not necessarily prove the observation of specific distance information on the molecule or cluster. These results are important for the interpretation of PELDOR experiments on membrane proteins or lipophilic peptides solubilized in detergent micelles or small vesicles, which often do not show pronounced dipolar oscillations in their time traces.
In the third part, PELDOR has been utilized to study the structural flexibility of the Toc34 GTPase homodimer, a preprotein receptor of the translocon of the outer envelope of chloroplasts (TOC). Toc34 belongs to GAD subfamily of G-proteins that are regulated and activated by nucleotide-dependent dimerization. However, the function of Toc34 dimerization is not yet fully understood. Previous structural investigations of the Toc34 dimer yielded only marginal structural changes in response to different nucleotide loads. PELDOR revealed a nucleotide-dependent transition of the dimer flexibility from a tight GDP to a flexible GTP-loaded state. Substrate-binding stabilizes the dimer in the transition state mimicked by GDP-AlFx, but induces an opening in the GDP or GTP-loaded state. Thus, the structural dynamics of bona fide GTPases induced by GTP hydrolysis is replaced by substrate-dependent dimer flexibility, which represents the regulatory mode for dimerizing GTPases.
In the fourth part of the thesis, conformational flexibility and relative orientation of the N-terminal POTRA domains of a cyanobacterial Omp85 from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, a key component of the outer membrane protein assembly machinery, were investigated by PELDOR spectroscopy. Membrane proteins of the Omp85-TpsB superfamily are composed of a C-terminal β-barrel and a different number of N-terminal POTRA domains, three in the case of cyanobacterial Omp85. It has been suggested that the N-terminal POTRA domains (P1 and P2) might have functions in substrate recognition. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations predicted a fixed orientation for P2 and P3 and a flexible hinge between P1 and P2. The PELDOR distances measured between the P2 and P3 POTRA domains are in good agreement with the structure determined by X-ray, and compatible with the MD simulations suggesting a fixed orientation between these domains. PELDOR constraints between the P1 and P2 POTRA domains imply a rather rigid structure with a slightly different relative orientation of these domains compared with the X-ray structure. Moreover, the large mobility predicted from MD is not observed in the frozen solution. The PELDOR results further highlight the restricted relative orientation of the POTRA domains of the Omp85-TpsB proteins as a conserved characteristic feature that might be important for the processive sliding of the unfolded substrate towards the membrane.