Taxonomy of Phanaeus revisited: Revised keys to and comments on species of the New World dung beetle genus PhanaeusMacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Phanaeini)
W. David Edmonds
- The purpose of this paper is to reassess the taxonomy of Phanaeus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to accommodate new taxa and changes in taxonomic opinion since the publication of Edmonds’ 1994 revision of the genus. The two subgenera and 13 species groups established by Edmonds (1994) remain unchanged. A revised set of keys with accompanying comments and illustrations separates 54 recognized valid species. Seven recently described valid species are incorporated into the revised classification: Phanaeus blackalleri Delgado-Castillo, 1991; P. bordoni Arnaud, 1996; P. changdiazi Kohlmann and Solís, 2001; P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000; P. martinezorum Arnaud, 2000; P. yecoraensis Edmonds, 2004; and P. zapotecus Edmonds, 2006. The new name Phanaeus sororibispinus Edmonds and Zidek replaces Phanaeus alvarengai Arnaud, 1984, a primary junior homonym of P. alvarengai Pereira and d’Andretta, 1955. Three subspecies recognized in 1994 are elevated to species rank, new status: Phanaeus texensis Edmonds, 1994; P. pilatei Harold, 1863; and P. guatemalensis Harold, 1871. Phanaeus obliquans Bates, 1887 is removed from synonymy and given new status as a valid species. Twelve new junior subjective synonyms (bold) are recognized: P. tridens balthasari Arnaud, 2002 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); P. dzidoi Arnaud, 2000 (of P. palaeno Blanchard, 1843); P. genieri Arnaud, 2002 (of P. amethystinus Harold, 1863); P. prasinus jolyi Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868); P. kirbyi ledezmai Arnaud, 2002 (of P. kirbyi Vigors, 1825); P. achilles lydiae Arnaud, 2000 (of P. achilles Boheman, 1858); P. chalcomelas grossii Arnaud, 2001 (of P. chalcomelas [Perty, 1830]); P pyrois malyi Arnaud, 2002 (of P. pyrois Bates, 1887); P. tridens moroni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. tridens Castenau, 1840); P. lecourti peruanus Arnaud, 2000 (of P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000); P. endymion porioni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. endymion Harold, 1863); P. pseudofurcosus Balthasar, 1939 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); and P. prasinus trinidadensis Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868). “Phanaeus viridicollis” Olsoufieff, 1924 (sensu Arnaud 2002) is an unavailable name here considered a color variant of P. pyrois Bates, 1887.
An annotated checklist of the Coleoptera (Insecta) of the Cayman Islands, West Indies
Michael C. Thomas
Robert H. Turnbow, Jr.
- A faunal list of 605 species of Coleoptera in 396 genera in 63 families is presented for the Cayman Islands. For most species, island and locality within island collecting information is provided.
Leaf Beetles of the Cayman Islands (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Shawn M. Clark
Luiz A. Belo Neto
- Data are presented for 29 chrysomelid species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in the Cayman Islands, West Indies, 26 of these not having been reported from these islands previously. Altica occidentalis Suffrian is removed from the genus Lysathia Bechyné and reinstated in Altica Geoffroy. Chaetocnema perplexa Blake is synonymized with Chaetocnema confinis Crotch, new synonymy. Omophoita cyanipennis octomaculata (Crotch) is synonymized with Omophoita cyanipennis (Fabricius), new synonymy. The following nine species are named and described: Apraea luciae, Apraea priscilae, Cryptocephalus catharinae, Cryptocephalus kirki, Cryptocephalus paulotigrinus, Longitarsus alisonae, Megistops adiae, Nyctiplanctus bifasciatus, Syphrea thurstonae, all are new species. Taxonomic notes and a key to species, as well as information on plant associations and extralimital distribution, are also provided.
Metabolic Changes in Summer Active and Anuric Hibernating Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos)
Abdul Rashid Qureshi
Richard J. Johnson
- The brown bear (Ursus arctos) hibernates for 5 to 6 months each winter and during this time ingests no food or water and remains anuric and inactive. Despite these extreme conditions, bears do not develop azotemia and preserve their muscle and bone strength. To date most renal studies have been limited to small numbers of bears, often in captive environments. Sixteen free-ranging bears were darted and had blood drawn both during hibernation in winter and summer. Samples were collected for measurement of creatinine and urea, markers of inflammation, the calcium-phosphate axis, and nutritional parameters including amino acids. In winter the bear serum creatinine increased 2.5 fold despite a 2-fold decrease in urea, indicating a remarkable ability to recycle urea nitrogen during hibernation. During hibernation serum calcium remained constant despite a decrease in serum phosphate and a rise in FGF23 levels. Despite prolonged inactivity and reduced renal function, inflammation does not ensue and bears seem to have enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms during hibernation. Nutrition parameters showed high fat stores, preserved amino acids and mild hyperglycemia during hibernation. While total, essential, non-essential and branched chain amino acids concentrations do not change during hibernation anorexia, changes in individual amino acids ornithine, citrulline and arginine indicate an active, although reduced urea cycle and nitrogen recycling to proteins. Serum uric acid and serum fructose levels were elevated in summer and changes between seasons were positively correlated. Further studies to understand how bears can prevent the development of uremia despite minimal renal function during hibernation could provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human kidney disease.
Identification of putative steroid receptor antagonists in bottled water: combining bioassays and high-resolution mass spectrometry
Michael P. Schlüsener
Thomas A. Ternes
- Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are man-made compounds interfering with hormone signaling and thereby adversely affecting human health. Recent reports provide evidence for the presence of EDCs in commercially available bottled water, including steroid receptor agonists and antagonists. However, since these findings are based on biological data the causative chemicals remain unidentified and, therefore, inaccessible for toxicological evaluation. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of bottled water and to identify the causative steroid receptor antagonists. We evaluated the antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity of 18 bottled water products in reporter gene assays for human estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor. Using nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap Velos), we acquired corresponding analytical data. We combined the biological and chemical information to determine the exact mass of the tentative steroid receptor antagonist. Further MS(n) experiments elucidated the molecule's structure and enabled its identification. We detected significant antiestrogenicity in 13 of 18 products. 16 samples were antiandrogenic inhibiting the androgen receptor by up to 90%. Nontarget chemical analysis revealed that out of 24520 candidates present in bottled water one was consistently correlated with the antagonistic activity. By combining experimental and in silico MS(n) data we identified this compound as di(2-ethylhexyl) fumarate (DEHF). We confirmed the identity and biological activity of DEHF and additional isomers of dioctyl fumarate and maleate using authentic standards. Since DEHF is antiestrogenic but not antiandrogenic we conclude that additional, yet unidentified EDCs must contribute to the antagonistic effect of bottled water. Applying a novel approach to combine biological and chemical analysis this is the first study to identify so far unknown EDCs in bottled water. Notably, dioctyl fumarates and maleates have been overlooked by science and regulation to date. This illustrates the need to identify novel toxicologically relevant compounds to establish a more holistic picture of the human exposome.
Dinteria : Nr. 32, 2012
A new genus and five new species of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) from South America, with notes on additional taxa
Eugenio H. Nearns
- Lingafelteria, a new genus of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is described and illustrated. Five new species of Onciderini are also described and illustrated: Cylicasta mariahelenae, Lingafelteria giuglarisi, Psyllotoxus dalensi, Psyllotoxus faurei from French Guiana; Trestonia solangeae from Bolivia. Keys to the known species of Psyllotoxus Thomson, 1868 are provided. Psyllotoxoides albomaculata Breuning, 1961 is redescribed; and the first known females of Strioderes peruanus Giorgi, 2001 and Tibiosioma martinsi Nearns and Swift, 2011 are described. The following eight new country records are reported: Peritrox marcelae Nearns and Tavakilian, 2012 (Brazil); Pseudobeta ferruginea Galileo and Martins, 1990 (French Guiana); Tibiosioma martinsi Nearns and Swift, 2011 (Brazil, Peru); Trestonia exotica Galileo and Martins, 1990 (French Guiana); Trestonia morrisi Martins and Galileo, 2005 (French Guiana); Tritania dilloni Chalumeau, 1990 (French Guiana, Suriname).
DCD – a novel plant specific domain in proteins involved in development and programmed cell death
- Background: Recognition of microbial pathogens by plants triggers the hypersensitive reaction, a common form of programmed cell death in plants. These dying cells generate signals that activate the plant immune system and alarm the neighboring cells as well as the whole plant to activate defense responses to limit the spread of the pathogen. The molecular mechanisms behind the hypersensitive reaction are largely unknown except for the recognition process of pathogens. We delineate the NRP-gene in soybean, which is specifically induced during this programmed cell death and contains a novel protein domain, which is commonly found in different plant proteins. Results: The sequence analysis of the protein, encoded by the NRP-gene from soybean, led to the identification of a novel domain, which we named DCD, because it is found in plant proteins involved in development and cell death. The domain is shared by several proteins in the Arabidopsis and the rice genomes, which otherwise show a different protein architecture. Biological studies indicate a role of these proteins in phytohormone response, embryo development and programmed cell by pathogens or ozone. Conclusion: It is tempting to speculate, that the DCD domain mediates signaling in plant development and programmed cell death and could thus be used to identify interacting proteins to gain further molecular insights into these processes.
A guide to nestling development and aging in altricial passerines
Stephanie L. Jones
Geoffrey R. Geupel
Paula J. Gouse
- Nestling growth and development studies have been a topic of interest for a greater part of the last century (Sutton 1935, Walkinshaw 1948) and continue to be of interest today. This is not surprising since studies on nestling growth can provide a wealth of biological information that has larger implications for avian management and conservation. Despite this history of studying nestling development, basic information is still limited or absent for many species. Many questions remain unanswered, and contradictory conclusions are often found in the literature (Starck and Ricklefs 1998a). Therefore, much information on aging and development can still be gained from studying the development patterns of similar species and from comparative studies, across avian orders (Minea et al. 1982, Saunders and Hansen 1989, Carsson and Hörnfeldt 1993). Additionally, nestling growth studies can yield insight into the effects of different nesting strategies on productivity (O’Connor 1978), as well as the impacts of parental effort and environmental variables on fitness (Ross 1980, Ricklefs and Peters 1981, Magrath 1991). Since low reproductive success may play a significant role in the declines of many North American passerines (Sherry and Holmes 1992, Ballard et al. 2003), a better understanding of the factors that influence reproductive success is a vital component of avian conservation (Martin 1992). Data on nestling aging can be used to improve nest survival estimates (Dinsmore 2002, Nur et al. 2004), providing information that can be used to more precisely age nests (Pinkowski 1975, Podlesack and Blem 2002), (Jones and Geupel 2007). Indeed, the relatively short time period young spend developing in the nest is a critical part of a bird’s life cycle and a nestling’s developmental path can affect its survival to independence, its survival as an adult, and its future reproductive success.
UK Seabirds in 2005 : results from the UK Seabird Monitoring Programme
- Seabirds in the UK were generally more productive in 2005 than in 2004, when productivity for many species reached an all-time low. A presumed scarcity of sandeels in 2004, especially in the North Sea, led to widespread starvation of chicks in the Northern Isles and in many places along the east coast of Britain (there is also recent evidence that prey fish were of unusually low energy content in 2004 around SE Scotland). The likely knock-on effect for 2005 was that there were few larger sandeels present (those that hatched in 2004) and it is thought that feeding on these fish allow adults to attain breeding condition in spring. This food scarcity and a cold spring led to what was among the latest breeding seasons on record. However, a late appearance of young sandeels allowed some chicks to fledge, and alternative prey species (such as sprat and small haddock) were taken also. However, it is thought that some chicks starved in this late season, as sandeels become unavailable in late summer, when they settle on the seabed. Unusually, 2005 was a very poor breeding season for many species in NW Scotland, which was spared the food shortages of 2004 and previous years; preferred prey during chick rearing were scarce in this region in 2005.