Taxonomy of Phanaeus revisited: Revised keys to and comments on species of the New World dung beetle genus PhanaeusMacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Phanaeini)
W. David Edmonds
- The purpose of this paper is to reassess the taxonomy of Phanaeus MacLeay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to accommodate new taxa and changes in taxonomic opinion since the publication of Edmonds’ 1994 revision of the genus. The two subgenera and 13 species groups established by Edmonds (1994) remain unchanged. A revised set of keys with accompanying comments and illustrations separates 54 recognized valid species. Seven recently described valid species are incorporated into the revised classification: Phanaeus blackalleri Delgado-Castillo, 1991; P. bordoni Arnaud, 1996; P. changdiazi Kohlmann and Solís, 2001; P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000; P. martinezorum Arnaud, 2000; P. yecoraensis Edmonds, 2004; and P. zapotecus Edmonds, 2006. The new name Phanaeus sororibispinus Edmonds and Zidek replaces Phanaeus alvarengai Arnaud, 1984, a primary junior homonym of P. alvarengai Pereira and d’Andretta, 1955. Three subspecies recognized in 1994 are elevated to species rank, new status: Phanaeus texensis Edmonds, 1994; P. pilatei Harold, 1863; and P. guatemalensis Harold, 1871. Phanaeus obliquans Bates, 1887 is removed from synonymy and given new status as a valid species. Twelve new junior subjective synonyms (bold) are recognized: P. tridens balthasari Arnaud, 2002 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); P. dzidoi Arnaud, 2000 (of P. palaeno Blanchard, 1843); P. genieri Arnaud, 2002 (of P. amethystinus Harold, 1863); P. prasinus jolyi Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868); P. kirbyi ledezmai Arnaud, 2002 (of P. kirbyi Vigors, 1825); P. achilles lydiae Arnaud, 2000 (of P. achilles Boheman, 1858); P. chalcomelas grossii Arnaud, 2001 (of P. chalcomelas [Perty, 1830]); P pyrois malyi Arnaud, 2002 (of P. pyrois Bates, 1887); P. tridens moroni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. tridens Castenau, 1840); P. lecourti peruanus Arnaud, 2000 (of P. lecourti Arnaud, 2000); P. endymion porioni Arnaud, 2001 (of P. endymion Harold, 1863); P. pseudofurcosus Balthasar, 1939 (of P. tridens Castelnau, 1840); and P. prasinus trinidadensis Arnaud, 2001 (of P. prasinus Harold, 1868). “Phanaeus viridicollis” Olsoufieff, 1924 (sensu Arnaud 2002) is an unavailable name here considered a color variant of P. pyrois Bates, 1887.
An annotated checklist of the Coleoptera (Insecta) of the Cayman Islands, West Indies
Michael C. Thomas
Robert H. Turnbow, Jr.
- A faunal list of 605 species of Coleoptera in 396 genera in 63 families is presented for the Cayman Islands. For most species, island and locality within island collecting information is provided.
Leaf Beetles of the Cayman Islands (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Shawn M. Clark
Luiz A. Belo Neto
- Data are presented for 29 chrysomelid species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in the Cayman Islands, West Indies, 26 of these not having been reported from these islands previously. Altica occidentalis Suffrian is removed from the genus Lysathia Bechyné and reinstated in Altica Geoffroy. Chaetocnema perplexa Blake is synonymized with Chaetocnema confinis Crotch, new synonymy. Omophoita cyanipennis octomaculata (Crotch) is synonymized with Omophoita cyanipennis (Fabricius), new synonymy. The following nine species are named and described: Apraea luciae, Apraea priscilae, Cryptocephalus catharinae, Cryptocephalus kirki, Cryptocephalus paulotigrinus, Longitarsus alisonae, Megistops adiae, Nyctiplanctus bifasciatus, Syphrea thurstonae, all are new species. Taxonomic notes and a key to species, as well as information on plant associations and extralimital distribution, are also provided.
Metabolic Changes in Summer Active and Anuric Hibernating Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus arctos)
Abdul Rashid Qureshi
Richard J. Johnson
- The brown bear (Ursus arctos) hibernates for 5 to 6 months each winter and during this time ingests no food or water and remains anuric and inactive. Despite these extreme conditions, bears do not develop azotemia and preserve their muscle and bone strength. To date most renal studies have been limited to small numbers of bears, often in captive environments. Sixteen free-ranging bears were darted and had blood drawn both during hibernation in winter and summer. Samples were collected for measurement of creatinine and urea, markers of inflammation, the calcium-phosphate axis, and nutritional parameters including amino acids. In winter the bear serum creatinine increased 2.5 fold despite a 2-fold decrease in urea, indicating a remarkable ability to recycle urea nitrogen during hibernation. During hibernation serum calcium remained constant despite a decrease in serum phosphate and a rise in FGF23 levels. Despite prolonged inactivity and reduced renal function, inflammation does not ensue and bears seem to have enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms during hibernation. Nutrition parameters showed high fat stores, preserved amino acids and mild hyperglycemia during hibernation. While total, essential, non-essential and branched chain amino acids concentrations do not change during hibernation anorexia, changes in individual amino acids ornithine, citrulline and arginine indicate an active, although reduced urea cycle and nitrogen recycling to proteins. Serum uric acid and serum fructose levels were elevated in summer and changes between seasons were positively correlated. Further studies to understand how bears can prevent the development of uremia despite minimal renal function during hibernation could provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human kidney disease.
Dinteria : Nr. 32, 2012
A new genus and five new species of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) from South America, with notes on additional taxa
Eugenio H. Nearns
- Lingafelteria, a new genus of Onciderini Thomson, 1860 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) is described and illustrated. Five new species of Onciderini are also described and illustrated: Cylicasta mariahelenae, Lingafelteria giuglarisi, Psyllotoxus dalensi, Psyllotoxus faurei from French Guiana; Trestonia solangeae from Bolivia. Keys to the known species of Psyllotoxus Thomson, 1868 are provided. Psyllotoxoides albomaculata Breuning, 1961 is redescribed; and the first known females of Strioderes peruanus Giorgi, 2001 and Tibiosioma martinsi Nearns and Swift, 2011 are described. The following eight new country records are reported: Peritrox marcelae Nearns and Tavakilian, 2012 (Brazil); Pseudobeta ferruginea Galileo and Martins, 1990 (French Guiana); Tibiosioma martinsi Nearns and Swift, 2011 (Brazil, Peru); Trestonia exotica Galileo and Martins, 1990 (French Guiana); Trestonia morrisi Martins and Galileo, 2005 (French Guiana); Tritania dilloni Chalumeau, 1990 (French Guiana, Suriname).
A guide to nestling development and aging in altricial passerines
Stephanie L. Jones
Geoffrey R. Geupel
Paula J. Gouse
- Nestling growth and development studies have been a topic of interest for a greater part of the last century (Sutton 1935, Walkinshaw 1948) and continue to be of interest today. This is not surprising since studies on nestling growth can provide a wealth of biological information that has larger implications for avian management and conservation. Despite this history of studying nestling development, basic information is still limited or absent for many species. Many questions remain unanswered, and contradictory conclusions are often found in the literature (Starck and Ricklefs 1998a). Therefore, much information on aging and development can still be gained from studying the development patterns of similar species and from comparative studies, across avian orders (Minea et al. 1982, Saunders and Hansen 1989, Carsson and Hörnfeldt 1993). Additionally, nestling growth studies can yield insight into the effects of different nesting strategies on productivity (O’Connor 1978), as well as the impacts of parental effort and environmental variables on fitness (Ross 1980, Ricklefs and Peters 1981, Magrath 1991). Since low reproductive success may play a significant role in the declines of many North American passerines (Sherry and Holmes 1992, Ballard et al. 2003), a better understanding of the factors that influence reproductive success is a vital component of avian conservation (Martin 1992). Data on nestling aging can be used to improve nest survival estimates (Dinsmore 2002, Nur et al. 2004), providing information that can be used to more precisely age nests (Pinkowski 1975, Podlesack and Blem 2002), (Jones and Geupel 2007). Indeed, the relatively short time period young spend developing in the nest is a critical part of a bird’s life cycle and a nestling’s developmental path can affect its survival to independence, its survival as an adult, and its future reproductive success.
UK Seabirds in 2005 : results from the UK Seabird Monitoring Programme
- Seabirds in the UK were generally more productive in 2005 than in 2004, when productivity for many species reached an all-time low. A presumed scarcity of sandeels in 2004, especially in the North Sea, led to widespread starvation of chicks in the Northern Isles and in many places along the east coast of Britain (there is also recent evidence that prey fish were of unusually low energy content in 2004 around SE Scotland). The likely knock-on effect for 2005 was that there were few larger sandeels present (those that hatched in 2004) and it is thought that feeding on these fish allow adults to attain breeding condition in spring. This food scarcity and a cold spring led to what was among the latest breeding seasons on record. However, a late appearance of young sandeels allowed some chicks to fledge, and alternative prey species (such as sprat and small haddock) were taken also. However, it is thought that some chicks starved in this late season, as sandeels become unavailable in late summer, when they settle on the seabed. Unusually, 2005 was a very poor breeding season for many species in NW Scotland, which was spared the food shortages of 2004 and previous years; preferred prey during chick rearing were scarce in this region in 2005.
Prox1 regulates the notch1-mediated inhibition of neurogenesis
Panagiotis K. Politis
- Activation of Notch1 signaling in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces self-renewal and inhibits neurogenesis. Upon neuronal differentiation, NPCs overcome this inhibition, express proneural genes to induce Notch ligands, and activate Notch1 in neighboring NPCs. The molecular mechanism that coordinates Notch1 inactivation with initiation of neurogenesis remains elusive. Here, we provide evidence that Prox1, a transcription repressor and downstream target of proneural genes, counteracts Notch1 signaling via direct suppression of Notch1 gene expression. By expression studies in the developing spinal cord of chick and mouse embryo, we showed that Prox1 is limited to neuronal precursors residing between the Notch1+ NPCs and post-mitotic neurons. Physiological levels of Prox1 in this tissue are sufficient to allow binding at Notch1 promoter and they are critical for proper Notch1 transcriptional regulation in vivo. Gain-of-function studies in the chick neural tube and mouse NPCs suggest that Prox1-mediated suppression of Notch1 relieves its inhibition on neurogenesis and allows NPCs to exit the cell cycle and differentiate. Moreover, loss-of-function in the chick neural tube shows that Prox1 is necessary for suppression of Notch1 outside the ventricular zone, inhibition of active Notch signaling, down-regulation of NPC markers, and completion of neuronal differentiation program. Together these data suggest that Prox1 inhibits Notch1 gene expression to control the balance between NPC self-renewal and neuronal differentiation.
The variegated mud-loving beetles (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae) of Mississippi and Alabama, with discussion and keys to the species occurring in the southeastern United States
Jonas G. King
Paul K. Lagos
- We review the variegated mud-loving beetle fauna of the southeastern United States (Coleoptera: Heteroceridae), with an emphasis on Mississippi and Alabama. A key is presented to all species known to occur in the southeastern US, and includes several extra-limital species. Descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps are presented for each species. One new species, Tropicus nigrellus, is described and a lectotype is designated for Heterocerus schwarzi Horn. Our molecular data suggest that many previously recognized generic concepts are unnatural. As a result, the following generic synonymies are proposed: Culmus Pacheco 1964, Damfius Pacheco 1964, Efflagitatus Pacheco 1964, Erus Pacheco 1964, Filiolus Pacheco 1964, Gradus Pacheco 1964, Lanternarius Pacheco 1964, Lapsus Pacheco 1964, Neoheterocerus Pacheco 1964, Olmedous Pacheco 1964 and Peditatus Pacheco 1964 are synonyms of Heterocerus Fabricius; the genera Centariatus Pacheco 1964, Explorator Pacheco 1964, and Microaugyles Pacheco 1964 are synonyms of Augyles Schiödte. New combinations proposed and used in this paper include: Augyles auromicans (Kiesenwetter 1851, Heterocerus), Heterocerus parrotus (Pacheco 1964, Lanternarius), Heterocerus sandersoni (Pacheco 1964, Neoheterocerus) and Heterocerus selanderi (Pacheco 1964, Efflagitatus), Heterocerus texanus (Pacheco 1964, Peditatus). Other new combinations for North American species formed as a result of these generic reconfigurations, but not used in this paper, include: Heterocerus inciertus (Pacheco 1964, Damfius), Heterocerus longilobulus (Pacheco 1964, Neoheterocerus), Heterocerus sinuosus (Pacheco 1964, Lanternarius), Augyles canadensis (Fall 1920, Heterocerus), Augyles compactus (Fall 1937, Heterocerus), Augyles moleculus (Fall 1920, Heterocerus) and Augyles mundulus (Fall 1920, Heterocerus). New combinations for South American species suggested by molecular data, all originally described in the genus Efflagitatus, include: Heterocerus boliviensis (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus freudei (Pacheco 1973), Heterocerus furmidus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus ingeniosus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus meridianus (Pacheco 1975), Heterocerus reticulatus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus solitarius (Pacheco 1973), Heterocerus splendidus (Pacheco 1964), Heterocerus tortuosus (Pacheco 1973), Heterocerus woodruffi (Pacheco 1975). No new combinations involving synonymy within the genera Culmus, Erus, Filiolus, Gradus, Lapsus, and Olmedous were proposed because all included species were originally described as Heterocerus. Introduction