An inventory of invasive alien species in China
- Invasive alien species (IAS) are a major global challenge requiring urgent action, and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity (2011–2020) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) includes a target on the issue. Meeting the target requires an understanding of invasion patterns. However, national or regional analyses of invasions are limited to developed countries. We identified 488 IAS in China’s terrestrial habitats, inland waters and marine ecosystems based on available literature and field work, including 171 animals, 265 plants, 26 fungi, 3 protists, 11 procaryots, and 12 viruses. Terrestrial plants account for 51.6% of the total number of IAS, and terrestrial invertebrates (104 species) for 21.3%. Of the total numbers, 67.9% of plant IAS and 34.8% of animal IAS were introduced intentionally. All other taxa were introduced unintentionally despite very few animal and plant species that invaded naturally. In terms of habitats, 64.3% of IAS occur on farmlands, 13.9% in forests, 8.4% in marine ecosystems, 7.3% in inland waters, and 6.1% in residential areas. Half of all IAS (51.1%) originate from North and South America, 18.3% from Europe, 17.3% from Asia not including China, 7.2% from Africa, 1.8% from Oceania, and the origin of the remaining 4.3% IAS is unknown. The distribution of IAS can be divided into three zones. Most IAS are distributed in coastal provinces and the Yunnan province; provinces in Middle China have fewer IAS, and most provinces in West China have the least number of IAS. Sites where IAS were first detected are mainly distributed in the coastal region, the Yunnan Province and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The number of newly emerged IAS has been increasing since 1850. The cumulative number of firstly detected IAS grew exponentially.
Die Sensillen auf den Antennen der Grabwespe Liris niger (Hymenoptera, Sphecidae)
- Im Vergleich zu der Vielzahl von Einzeluntersuchungen liegen nur für wenige Insektenarten (z.B. Manduca sexta: SHIELDS & HILDEBRANDT 1999 a, b; Drosophila: SHANBHAG et al. 1999, 2000) detaillierte Befunde zur Feinstruktur, Zahl und Topographie antennaler Sensillen vor. Die jetzt an Liris niger gewonnenen Daten bilden, zusammen mit solchen früherer Untersuchungen (GNATZY 1996, 2001; ANTON & GNATZY 1998; GNATZY & FERBER 1999) die Basis für derzeit laufende immuncytochemische und elektrophysiologische Arbeiten insbesondere am olfaktorischen System dieser solitären Grabwespenart. Dabei gilt unser Interesse dem ausgeprägten Sexualdimorphismus im antennalen Sensilleninventar, wie er im Verlauf dieser Untersuchungen nachgewiesen werden konnte.
Geography-related sub-generic diversity within the Mediterranean trapdoor spider genus Nemesia (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae)
Arthur E. Decae
- Three different male and female super-specific types are distinguished according to variations in the morphology of the bulb and spermathecae within the genus Nemesia Audouin, 1826. Plotting the distributions of these sexual types on a map of the Mediterranean indicates the existence of geography-related sub-generic diversity in which the Nemesia fauna of the eastern Mediterranean differs markedly from that of the western Mediterranean. While the eastern Mediterranean Nemesia fauna is highly homogeneous, the fauna of the western Mediterranean is very diverse. The eastern and western Nemesia faunae appear to overlap in the central Mediterranean. Efforts to relate the specific bulb types to the particular types of spermathecae described here were only partly successful.
Abundant and rare spiders on tree trunks in German forests (Arachnida, Araneae)
- The spider fauna active on the bark of trees in forests on eight sites in different regions in Germany was
investigated. Trunk eclectors at about 2-4 meters height on living trees were used in different regions of Germany
(SW Bavaria, Hesse, Brandenburg) between 1990 and 2003. In Hesse eclectors were also used on dead beech trees
(standing and lying). In this study data, mainly from beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies), from May to October
are compared – whole year samples (including winter) are only available from Hesse. A total of 334 spider
species were recorded with these bark traps, i.e. about one third of the spider species known from Germany. On
average, each of the eight regions yielded 140.5 (± 26.2) species, each single tree 40.5 (± 12.2) species and 502 (±
452) adult spiders per season (i.e. May to Oct.). The 20 most abundant species are listed and characterised in detail.
Six of the 20 species were not known to be abundant on bark, three prefer conifers and three beech/broadleaf.
Even in winter (December-March) there was a remarkably high activity on the trunks. However, only a few species
occur exclusively or mainly in winter. Finally, the rarity of some bark spider species is discussed and details
(all known records in Germany, phenology) of four of them are presented (Clubiona leucaspis, Gongylidiellum edentatum,
Kratochviliella bicapitata, Oreonetides quadridentatus). The diversity and importance of the spider fauna on bark in Central
Europe is still underestimated.
Leiobunum religiosum: neu für Deutschland (Arachnida: Opiliones)
Axel Ludwig Schönhofer
Walckenaeria simplex neu für Deutschland (Araneae, Linyphiidae)
Neue Nachweise der Gerandeten Wasserspinne Dolomedes plantarius in Brandenburg (Araneae: Pisauridae)
Jason A. Dunlop
- The great raft spider, Dolomedes plantarius (Clerck, 1757), is a rare and endangered species in Germany and other European countries. Current data on its distribution and ecology are briefly reviewed. Five new (or overlooked) localities for this spider from the Spreewald-region of Brandenburg in eastern Germany are provided, together with an updated distribution map. One record, based on the authors’ own collections, is described and figured in detail, with the egg-carrying female discovered in reeds at the edge of a fairly large body of open water. Both direct and indirect protective measures for the habitats of this species in the Spreewald-region are recommended.
Bemerkenswerte Pflanzenvorkommen im Raum Osnabrück und angrenzenden Gebieten - 5. Fortsetzung -
- In dieser seit 1990 sechsten Auflistung seltener oder gefährdeter Gefäßpflanzen aus der Region Osnabrück (Niedersachsen und angrenzendes Nordrhein-Westfalen) ist die Arbeit der Botanischen Arbeitsgemeinschaft des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Osnabrück fortgeführt.
A Leafhopper Pest of Plants in the Mint Family, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), Ligurian Leafhopper, New to North America
Susan E. Halbert
David C. Ziesk
Raymond J. Gill
- The Ligurian leafhoppter, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), is reported for the first time in North America (USA: Florida and California). Diagnostic characters for species identification, summary of hosts and damage, and U.S. known distribution are given.
Erstfund von Hahnia picta (Araneae, Hahniidae) in Deutschland - mit Angaben zu Habitatpräferenz und Verbreitung