Weitere biologische Literatur (eingeschränkter Zugriff)
The phylogenetic relationships of Morgan´s Sphinx, Xanthopan morganii (Walker), the tribe Acherontiini, and allied long-tongued hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae, Sphinginae).
Ian J. Kitching
- A cladistic analysis is presented of the hawkmoths of the tribe Acherontiini, Morgan´s Sphinx (Xanthopan morganii (Walker», and related genera. The study aims to test the monophyly of tribe Acherontiini; the hypothesis that all taxa with extremely long probosces (some Acherontiini, Meganoton rubescens, Neococytius, Xanthopan) form a monophyletic group, or at least fall within a single reasonably compact clade; and, within this group, to determine whether Xanthopan is more closely related to Acherontiini or to COCytillS and Neococytius. The data set comprises 109 characters derived from adult and immature stage morphology, biology and behaviour. These data were analysed using equal weighting, successive approximations character weighting (SACW) and implied weighting. All weighting schemes agreed on the monophyly of Acherontiini and of a group of genera comprising Amphimoea, Cocytius and Neococytius (the Cocytius group). Several other generic and suprageneric clades were also consistently recovered. However, those hawkmoths with extremely long probosces were never recovered as a monophyletic group. The relationships of Xanthopan were also ambiguous. Equal weighting and SACW placedXanthopan + Meganoton rztbescens (Butler) as sister to the COCytills group, while implied weighting placed Xanthopan as sister to Acherontiini. This latter relationship is based primarily on shared possession of a pilifer/palp hearing organ. Further analyses suggested the two components of this organ were not biologically independent. Downweighting this feature accordingly resulted in all weighting schemes converging on the topology found by equal weighting. Exclusion of the incomplete subset of immature stage data had no effect under implied weighting but equal weighting and SACW now recovered a Neotropical clade comprising Manduca. and the Cocytius group, while Xanthopan was placed with M. rubescens and Panogena. Downweighting the pilifer/palp hearing organ under implied weighting again caused convergence with the equal weighting/SACW results. Thus, the relationships of Xanthopan remain equivocal and further data, particularly from the immature stages, will be required to elucidate its phylogenetic position further.
Nomenklatorische Liste der europäischen Orchideentaxa : Arten und Unterarten
- Die allgemein angewandten Namen der europäischen Orchideentaxa belaufen sich derzeit auf über 580 Namen, Synonyme nicht eingeschlossen. Die Übersicht soll die Namensfülle der gebräuchlichen Taxa und ihrer Synonyme (soweit erforderlich) in alphabetischer Reihenfolge aufzeigen. Taxa auf der Rangstufe der Varietät sind nicht enthalten.
Contributions to a reassessment of Costa Rican zygopetalinae (Orchidaceae) : 3. a systematic revision of Dichaea in Costa Rica
- A systematic revision of the genus Dichaeu (Orchidaceae) in Costa Rica is presented. The taxonomic history of the genus and its phylogenetic position are discussed, with emphasis on infragenenc grouping. Characters of vegetative and floral morphology are treated, and their taxonoiilic significance is discussed. Twenty-nine Dichnea taxa are recognized for the flora of Costa Rica, and a key to species is provided. Each taxon is described on the basis of Costa Rican material, illustrated in a composite plate, and its distribution in the country is assessed. Distribution maps for all the taxa are given. Overall distribution, derivation of name, notes on species ecology, and diagnostic features are presented for each taxon. Lectotypes are selectcd for D. acostae Schltr., D. acroblephara Schltr., D. amparoana Schltr., D. costaricensis Schltr., D. dammeriana Kraenzl., D. lycopodioides Rchb. f. ex Kraenzl., D. poicillantha Schltr., D. selaginella Schltr., D. tuercklheimii Schltr., Epidendrum echinocarpon Sw., and E. trichocarpon Sw. A new species, D. gomez-lauritoi, is described and illustrated from the wet Caribbean plains of central Costa Rica.