Weitere biologische Literatur (eingeschränkter Zugriff)
The phylogenetic relationships of Morgan's Sphinx, Xanthopan morganii (Walker), the tribe Acherontiini, and allied long-tongued hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae, Sphinginae)
Ian J. Kitching
- A cladistic analysis is presented of the hawkmoths of the tribe Acherontiini, Morgan´s Sphinx (Xanthopan morganii (Walker», and related genera. The study aims to test the monophyly of tribe Acherontiini; the hypothesis that all taxa with extremely long probosces (some Acherontiini, Meganoton rubescens, Neococytius, Xanthopan) form a monophyletic group, or at least fall within a single reasonably compact clade; and, within this group, to determine whether Xanthopan is more closely related to Acherontiini or to COCytillS and Neococytius. The data set comprises 109 characters derived from adult and immature stage morphology, biology and behaviour. These data were analysed using equal weighting, successive approximations character weighting (SACW) and implied weighting. All weighting schemes agreed on the monophyly of Acherontiini and of a group of genera comprising Amphimoea, Cocytius and Neococytius (the Cocytius group). Several other generic and suprageneric clades were also consistently recovered. However, those hawkmoths with extremely long probosces were never recovered as a monophyletic group. The relationships of Xanthopan were also ambiguous. Equal weighting and SACW placedXanthopan + Meganoton rztbescens (Butler) as sister to the COCytills group, while implied weighting placed Xanthopan as sister to Acherontiini. This latter relationship is based primarily on shared possession of a pilifer/palp hearing organ. Further analyses suggested the two components of this organ were not biologically independent. Downweighting this feature accordingly resulted in all weighting schemes converging on the topology found by equal weighting. Exclusion of the incomplete subset of immature stage data had no effect under implied weighting but equal weighting and SACW now recovered a Neotropical clade comprising Manduca. and the Cocytius group, while Xanthopan was placed with M. rubescens and Panogena. Downweighting the pilifer/palp hearing organ under implied weighting again caused convergence with the equal weighting/SACW results. Thus, the relationships of Xanthopan remain equivocal and further data, particularly from the immature stages, will be required to elucidate its phylogenetic position further.
Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813 (Insecta), caddisflies
Ralph W. Holzenthal
Roger J. Blahnik
Aysha L. Prather
Karl M. Kjer
- The taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the aquatic insect order Trichoptera, caddisflies, are reviewed. The order is among the most important and diverse of all aquatic taxa. Larvae are vital participants in aquatic food webs and their presence and relative abundance are used in the biological assessment and monitoring of water quality. The species described by Linnaeus are listed. The morphology of all life history stages (adults, larvae, and pupae) is diagnosed and major features of the anatomy are illustrated. Major components of life history and biology are summarized. A discussion of phylogenetic studies within the order is presented, including higher classification of the suborders and superfamilies, based on recent literature. Synopses of each of 45 families are presented, including the taxonomic history of the family, a list of all known genera in each family, their general distribution and relative species diversity, and a short overview of family-level biological features. The order contains 600 genera, and approximately 13,000 species.
Observations on the morphology and classification of weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea) with a key to major groups
Richard Thomas Thompson
- A brief account of the present state of weevil taxonomy is followed by a detailed study of certain structures used in their classification, namely the venter, abdominal tergites, sternite 8 of the male, apex of the hind tibia and deciduous mandibular processes. A key to some 50 families and subfamilies of Curculionoidea is followed by a list of family-group taxa. The following changes are made: Brachyceridae, Erirhinidae. Cryptolnryngidae und Raymondionymidae are promoted to family rank from Curculiollidne; Antliarhininae is demoted to a subfamily of Brentidae, and Allocoryninae to a subfamily of Oxycorynidne; Coptonotini is demoted to a tribe of Curculionidue Scolytinae; Carinae, sufam. n. is erected for Car Blackburn (genus incertae sedis) in Belidae; Dinomor'phini is demoted to a tribe of Molytinae and Brachyccropsidinae is revived from synonymy with Dinomorphinae (Curclliionidae); Urachyderini, Eremnini, Otiorhynchini and Sitonini are demoted to tribes of Entiminue; Desmidophorinae is transferred from Brentidae to Brachyccridae, Ocladiini is promoted to a tribe of Desmidophorinae (from Curculionidae-Cryptorhynchinae); Campyloseelini (including Phaenomerina) is transferred from Rhynchophoridae to Curculionidae-Zygopinae; Carphodicticinae is promoted to subfamily rank and transferred from Curculionidae-Scolytinae to Platypodidae; Perieges; Schönherr is transferred from Curculionidae-Thecesterninae to Cryptoiaryngidae and Agriochaeta Pascoe from Cryptorhynchinae to Hyperinae (Curculionidae); Schadlarius Wood and Mecopelmus Blackman are transferred from Coptonotidae to Platypodidae.
Fish leeches of Poland in relation to the Palaearctic pisciocolines (Hirudinea: Pisciocolidae: Pisciocolinae)
Il genere Genista L. in Italia : 1. Le specie delle sezioni Erinacoides Spach, Ephedrospartum Spach, Aureospartum sect. nova
- È stata effettuata una revisione sistematica sulle specie del genere Genista in Italia. L'indagine ha permesso di accertare la posizione tassonomica delle diverse entità che rappresentano il genere nel territorio italiano. In questa prima nota sono riferiti i risultati emersi dallo studio delle entità di sezioni a prevalente distribuzione in opposte zone del bacino del Mediterraneo e precisamente Erinacoides Spach del Mediterraneo occidentale ed Ephedrospartum Spach, Aureospartum sect. nova del Mediterraneo centrale. La sezione Erinacoides é rappresentata da G. salzmanii DC. in Sardegna e in Corsica, G. pichisermolliana sp. nov. in Sardegna, G. aspalathoides Lam. in Sicilia, Pantelleria, Africa settentrionale, G. desoleana Valso in Liguria, Toscana, Elba, Corsica e Sardegna, G. arbusensis Vals., G. sulcitana Valso e G. toluensis Valso in Sardegna. La sezione Aureospartum (sect. nova) comprende solo l'endemica sardo-sicula G. aetnensis (Raf.) DC. e l'Ephedrospartum racchiude G. ephedroides DC. presente in Sardegna, G. thyrrena Valso nell'arcipelago ponziano, G. gasparrini in Sicilia e G. cilentina Vals. in Campania e in Sicilia.