Afrika südlich der Sahara
Why did abolishing fees not increase public school enrollment in Kenya?
- A large empirical literature has shown that user fees signicantly deter public service utilization in developing #countries. While most of these results reflect partial equilibrium analysis, we find that the nationwide abolition of public school fees in Kenya in 2003 led to no increase in net public enrollment rates, but rather a dramatic shift toward private schooling. Results suggest this divergence between partial- and general-equilibrium effects is partially explained by social interactions: the entry of poorer pupils into free education contributed to the exit of their more affluent peers.
The high return to private schooling in a low-income country
- Existing studies from the United States, Latin America, and Asia provide scant evidence that private schools dramatically improve academic performance relative to public schools. Using data from Kenya—a poor country with weak public institutions—we find a large effect of private schooling on test scores, equivalent to one full standard deviation. This finding is robust to endogenous sorting of more able pupils into private schools. The magnitude of the effect dwarfs the impact of any rigorously tested intervention to raise performance within public schools. Furthermore, nearly twothirds of private schools operate at lower cost than the median government school.
Collapse, war and reconstruction in Uganda : an analytical narrative on state-making
- Since independence from British colonial rule, Uganda has had a turbulent political history characterised by putsches, dictatorship, contested electoral outcomes, civil wars and a military invasion. There were eight changes of government within a period of twenty-four years (from 1962-1986), five of which were violent and unconstitutional. This paper identifies factors that account for these recurrent episodes of political violence and state collapse. While colonialism bequeathed the country a negative legacy including a weak state apparatus, ethnic division, skewed development, elite polarisation and a narrow economic base, post-colonial leaders have on the whole exacerbated rather than reversed these trends. Factors such as ethnic rivalry, political exclusion, militarisation of politics, weak state institutions, and unequal access to opportunities for self-advancement help to account for the recurrent cycles of violence and state failure prior to 1986. External factors have also been important, particularly the country’s politically turbulent neighbourhood, the outcome of political instability and civil conflict in surrounding countries. Neighbourhood turbulence stemming from such factors as civil wars in Congo and Sudan has had spill-over effects in that it has allowed insurgent groups geographical space within which to operate as well as provided opportunities for the acquisition of instruments of war with which to destabilise the country. Critical to these processes have been the porosity of post-colonial borders and the inability by the Ugandan state to exercise effective control over its entire territory. By demonstrating the interplay between internal and external factors in shaping Uganda’s postcolonial experience, the paper makes an important shift away from conventional explanations that have focused disproportionately on internal processes. Lastly, the paper provides pointers to areas of further research such as the economic foundations of conflict that should ultimately strengthen our understanding of factors that combine to make state-making fail or succeed.
From a phone call to the high court : wayeyi visibility and the Kamanakao association’s campaign for linguistic and cultural rights in Botswana
- This paper by the Coordinator of the Kamanakao Association reflects upon the Association’s campaign against tribally discriminatory laws, against the social stigma of past serfdom, and for human rights and democracy in Botswana. The campaign made Wayeyi from the North West District highly visible on the national scene. Through litigation up to the High Court, the Kamanakao Association broke new ground for judicial review in the broad public interest. The advance was for the cultural rights of ‘minorities’ in general, and not only in the interest of the Wayeyi. The most favourable High Court ruling recognised Yei cultural distinctness, allowed them to secede from the tribe of their past overlords, the Tawana, and concluded a landmark case in the wider fight against state-backed tribal discrimination and denial of language rights. As an insider’s account mainly about recent events, but seen in a perspective extending to precolonial times, the paper focuses on strategies for and against change. These are the strategies effecting the power relations, in turn, between the Yeyi and the Tawana, former serfs and overlords, the Yeyi and the Government, and the Government and the Tswana speaking tribes unfairly privileged by the tribally discriminatory laws.
Collapse, war and reconstruction in Rwanda : an analytical narrative on state-making
- Rwanda entered independence following a transition marked by violent internecine conflict. The conflict was stoked by the departing colonial rulers as they sought to place control of the levers of state in the hands of an ethnic majority, which they had hitherto marginalised in favour of a minority they now sought to exclude. It carried on into the country’s post-colonial politics. For nearly three decades Rwanda’s postcolonial rulers presided over an ethnocracy that perpetuated the negative colonial legacy of ethnic division. They systematically practiced a politics of exclusion and repression that placed the country’s long-term stability under threat, eventually led to civil war, and culminated in the genocide of 1994. After the genocide and the defeat and overthrow of the ancien regime of ethnic supremacists, the new ruling elite - most of whom had spent nearly three decades in exile or been born there - embarked on re-building a collapsed state and re-ordering the country’s politics. The last fourteen years have witnessed deliberate efforts to re-orient the country away from three decades of politics of division and exclusion under the First and Second Republics, towards a system which privileges national reconciliation and unity, equity, and inclusion. This paper examines developments in post-1994 Rwanda against the background of pre-1994 politics and society, and the factors that led to and facilitated the war that culminated in the genocide and eventual overthrow of the Second Republic. It provides insights into the efforts and achievements made by the new ruling elites in pursuit of long-term peace and stability. A great deal, however, remains inadequately explored, including political organisation and the role of political parties, economic reform and management, and the reform and management of the security sector, all of which are the focus of on-going research.
A study on the impact of mobile telecommunication on the welfare of sub saharan african countries
Hauke Heinrich Friedrich Plambeck
- Africa: A continent is waking up. Not through aid or wealth from the exploitation of natural resources, but through a technological revolution. The access to affordable mobile telecommunication. Inspired by deregulation and pioneered by local champions who have taken a lead in what is today's fastest growing mobile market in the world. There is money to be made in these markets, attracting more and more operators from the northern hemisphere.
However positive the short term impact of this revolution may be, governments should try hard to assure a market of continued competition among network operators, as this competition is the source of a self propelled creation of welfare and new opportunities, motivated from within Africa.
Chapter 1 of this thesis highlights the positive impact of mobile telecommunication on the social and economic life in Sub Saharan Africa. Chapter 2 builds on the static as well as the dynamic version of the Network Pricing Game, a model developed by Dr. Carolyn Gideon, to stress the immanent threat of network markets turning into a monopoly. This theses ends in Chapter 3 with an brief outlook on further drivers of economic growth and opportunities awaiting Sub Saharan Africa in the coming decade.
Urban life-worlds in motion: In Africa and beyond
Hans Peter Hahn
- Although throughout the history of anthropology the ethnography of urban societies was never an important topic, investigations on cities in Africa contributed to the early theoretical development of urban studies in social sciences. As the ethnography of rural migrants in towns made clear, cultural diversity and creativity are foundational and permanent elements of urban cultures in Africa (and beyond). Currently, two new aspects complement these insights: 1) Different forms of mobility have received a new awareness through the concept of transnationalism. They are much more complex, including not only rural–urban migration, but also urban–urban migration, and migrations with a destination beyond the continent. 2) Urban life-worlds also include the appropriation of globally circulating images and lifestyles, which contribute substantially to the current cultural dynamics of cities in Africa. These two aspects are the reasons for the high complexity of urban contexts in Africa. Therefore, whether it is still appropriate to speak about the “locality” of these life-worlds has become questionable. At the same time, these new aspects explain the self-consciousness of members of urban cultures in Africa. They contribute to the expansive character of these societies and to the impression that cities in Africa host the most innovative and creative societies worldwide.
African studies – striving for integrated information services: Recent developments in Germany and Europe
- New projects, services and collaborations have recently brought the infrastructural services for African Studies a big step forward. This report gives an account of new subject gateways and digitisation projects. It discusses recent European cooperation ventures in the field of librarianship. Additionally, new developments and services of the Africa Collection at Frankfurt University Library are presented, which help to address the changing needs of researchers and to handle information overload, while keeping up with the latest developments. Nevertheless, the fragmentation and compartmentalisation of the different services still hinder more integrated information services.
African Publishing Review : 2003, multiple issues, Vol. 12 No. 4-6
NEPAD AND AFRICAN PUBLISHING 2
HISTORY AND CULTURES IN AFRICA : THE MOVEMENT OF BOOKS 4
CURRENT OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FACING AFRICAN PUBLISHERS 8
SAFEGUARDS AUTHORS’ WORKS 10
THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PUBLISHING IN THE CARIBBEAN 11
2002 NOMA AWARD WINNER 14
A REPORT OF THE ZIMBABWE INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR (ZIBF) 16
THE UNIVERSITY TRAINING COURSE 18
APNET AT THE 2003 NAIROBI INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR 21
THE JOMO KENYATTA PRIZE 24
BUISINESS OPPORTUNUITIES 25
REPORT OF THE 4TH FOIRE INTERNATIONALE DU LIVRE DE OUAGADOUGOU 30
APNET’S SECOND STRATEGIC PLAN 32
FIFTH PAN AFRICAN BOOKSELLERS ASSOCIATION CONVENTION 35
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNUITIES OF INTRA-AFRICAN TRADE IN EAST AFRICA 38
African Publishing Review : 2004, Vol. 13 No. 2
- CONTENTS: WHITHER THE SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLISHING INDUSTRY ? 4;
APNET MESSAGE TO AFRICAN PUBLISHERS ON WORLD BOOK DAY 11 ;
FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR OPERATORS IN CULTURE-RELATED INDUSTRIES 13;
4TH SALON INTERNATIONAL DU LIVRE D’ABIDJAN (SILA) 2004 16;
THE NIGERIA INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR (NIBF) 2004 20;
THE NOMA AWARD 2003 PRESENTATION 22;
A NEW CONSULTANCY FIRM IS FORMED 27;
EDILIS HOLD DEDICATION CEREMONY 30;
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 34;
NEWS FROM PARTNER ORGANISATIONS 41;