Afrika südlich der Sahara
Fespaco Newsletter N°22
- Avec 2004 que nous venons d'amorcer, c'est aussi un nouveau vieux défi que les comédiens africains se sont donnés et doivent remporter. Ils le feront, si tant est qu'ils soient de puissants vecteurs de sensibilisation et de puissants catalyseurs, pouvant contribuer à asseoir des cinématographies capables de contribuer au développement des économies de leurs pays. Ce défi est celui de la professionnalisation du métier de comédien mais aussi celui de la promotion des différentes carrières des acteurs africains. Réaliser ce challenge passe par la création de structures et de cadres professionnels adéquats, mais aussi la création d'une structure permanente de réflexion sur les contours sociaux, artistiques et juridiques du métier de comédien. Réaliser ce challenge nécessite l'engagement de tous les comédiens africains. Ils l'ont fait lors du dernier festival du cinéma et de la télévision de Ouagadougou. Cela ne sera sûrement pas chose aisée, mais nous avons confiance en nos cinéastes.
Fespaco Newsletter N°23
- Point n'est besoin d'être devin pour dire qu'une excellente formation aux métiers de l'image et du son, en somme du cinéma, est plus qu'une nécessité de nos jours. Une formation adéquate qui permettrait aux professionnels du cinéma, de maîtriser les nouvelles normes de production et de distribution est capitale et d'actualité, compte tenu de la rapidité de l'évolution technologique dans ce domaine. Cela est réel aussi bien en Afrique que sous d'autres cieux. De ce fait, des initiatives sont prises de part et d'autres. Au Sénégal par exemple, les autorités s'organisent pour soutenir et autofinancer les activités de leur cinématographie.
Fespaco Newsletter N°27
- Nous abordons cette nouvelle année avec beaucoup d’espoir pour le cinéma africain. Comme on dit : l’essentiel n’est pas d’exister, mais de faire dans la durée, et malgré les écueils divers, résister en continuant de créer pour avancer. Les cinéastes se sont appropriés les nouvelles technologies et oeuvrent en visant la continuité non seulement au plan national, c'est-à-dire un cinéma africain pour les africains, mais aussi aux plans régional et international. En s’organisant, les réalisateurs donnent une ouverture au cinéma africain qui s’exporte et s’apprécie de plus en plus dans le monde entier. Ce numéro fait entre autres, une part belle aux Etalons d’or, de bronze et d’argent, Lucie A. Kéré aux différents Poulains (or, argent, bronze), ainsi qu’aux meilleurs documentaires, au Prix Paul Robeson et à celui d’Oumarou Ganda, de la vingtième édition.
African Publishing Review : 2004, Vol. 13 No. 2
- CONTENTS: WHITHER THE SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLISHING INDUSTRY ? 4;
APNET MESSAGE TO AFRICAN PUBLISHERS ON WORLD BOOK DAY 11 ;
FUNDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR OPERATORS IN CULTURE-RELATED INDUSTRIES 13;
4TH SALON INTERNATIONAL DU LIVRE D’ABIDJAN (SILA) 2004 16;
THE NIGERIA INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR (NIBF) 2004 20;
THE NOMA AWARD 2003 PRESENTATION 22;
A NEW CONSULTANCY FIRM IS FORMED 27;
EDILIS HOLD DEDICATION CEREMONY 30;
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 34;
NEWS FROM PARTNER ORGANISATIONS 41;
African Publishing Review : 2003, multiple issues, Vol. 12 No. 4-6
NEPAD AND AFRICAN PUBLISHING 2
HISTORY AND CULTURES IN AFRICA : THE MOVEMENT OF BOOKS 4
CURRENT OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FACING AFRICAN PUBLISHERS 8
SAFEGUARDS AUTHORS’ WORKS 10
THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PUBLISHING IN THE CARIBBEAN 11
2002 NOMA AWARD WINNER 14
A REPORT OF THE ZIMBABWE INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR (ZIBF) 16
THE UNIVERSITY TRAINING COURSE 18
APNET AT THE 2003 NAIROBI INTERNATIONAL BOOK FAIR 21
THE JOMO KENYATTA PRIZE 24
BUISINESS OPPORTUNUITIES 25
REPORT OF THE 4TH FOIRE INTERNATIONALE DU LIVRE DE OUAGADOUGOU 30
APNET’S SECOND STRATEGIC PLAN 32
FIFTH PAN AFRICAN BOOKSELLERS ASSOCIATION CONVENTION 35
CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNUITIES OF INTRA-AFRICAN TRADE IN EAST AFRICA 38
Centre Culturel Français : programme Mars - Avril 2008
Are environmental conditions predisposing to calcium-deficiency rickets in developing countries? : A community-based case study from rural Kaduna, northern Nigeria
- Calcium-deficiency rickets (CDR) is a metabolic bone disease in children that is characterized by impaired mineralization and severe bone deformities. As CDR is often an endemic phenomenon that is almost exclusively restricted to tropical areas, environmental conditions are currently considered to be a possible predisposing factor for the CDR. Apart from a lack of macronutrients and micronutrients, an oversupply of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the soil-plant pathway of the CDR areas is thought to be involved in the aetiology of CDR. This study is the first to comprehensively analyze the impact of the environment on Ca deficiency and the resulting CDR.
To analyze the impact of the environment on CDR in developing countries, a rural region near Kaduna City, northern Nigeria, was chosen as a study area. From this area, cases of CDR have been reported since the early 2000s with a prevalence rate of 5%. Within this study area, 11 study sites, including areas with a high CDR prevalence (HR), a low CDR prevalence (LR) and no CDR prevalence (NR), were visited. In these HR, LR and NR study sites, the bedrock was investigated and the types of parent materials were identified. Local farmers were interviewed to determine the type and intensity of the land use. The soil types were determined along toposequences. The soil textures as well as the clay mineral fractions were determined. The pH values were measured, and the contents of organic carbon (OC) were determined. The potential cation-exchange capacity (CECpot) and the base saturation (BS) were analyzed. Furthermore, the total and plant-available macronutrient, micronutrient and PTE concentrations were measured in the soils. The drinking water was analyzed for pH values and the concentrations of Ca, Se and F were measured. The maize was analyzed for the Ca, Mg, K and P, Se and phytic acid (PA) contents.
The field and laboratory analyses on the bedrock showed that the HR, LR and NR study sites near Kaduna City, northern Nigeria, were underlain by Older Granites. A direct link between the distribution of the bedrock, the parent materials and the prevalence of CDR was not found. Interviews with the local farmers showed that the land use in the Kaduna study area is dominated by the cultivation of cash crops and food crops. Field analyzes on the soil types in the Kaduna study area showed that the distribution of the soil types is highly dependent on the topography and the distribution of the parent materials. In near vicinity to the inselbergs, Lixisols had developed on grus slope deposits. In the lower pediment and plain positions, Acrisols had developed on grus slope deposits and pisolite slope deposits. In the upper plains, Plinthosols had developed on pisolite slope deposits and in the river valleys, Fluvisols had developed on river deposits. Such soil types and soil type distributions are typical for granite-underlain areas in the northern guinea savanna of West Africa. Similarly, the physical soil conditions were representative for the soils of the northern guinea savanna: sandy topsoils, clayey subsoils and relatively high contents of kaolinite clay minerals in the clay fractions. With regard to the geochemical composition, no significant difference was found between the soils of the Kaduna study area and the soils of other granite-underlain areas in West Africa. Only the concentrations of P were considerably low in the soils of the Kaduna study area. However, P deficiency is a typical phenomenon in West African savanna soils and is not restricted to CDR areas. The micronutrient concentrations in the soils were low, but not critically low. Laboratory analyses on the amounts of PTEs showed that compared to worldwide background levels and international critical limits the PTE concentrations were very low in the soils of the Kaduna study area. In the drinking water, neither a significant lack of macronutrients and micronutrients, nor a noticeable oversupply of PTEs was found. The maize in the HR, LR and NR study sites contained normal contents of Mg, K and P, low contents of Ca and Se as well as slightly elevated concentrations of PA compared to West African food composition tables. Comparisons between the mineral contents of traditional and modern maize cultivars showed that the traditional maize cultivars contained significantly higher contents of Ca and noticeably lower concentrations of PA than the modern maize cultivars.
A direct link between the environmental conditions and the CDR in the Kaduna study area was considered unlikely, as neither a statistically significant lack of macronutrients and micronutrients, nor a statistically significant oversupply of PTEs was found in the environment of this area. Instead, the results indicated that the nutrition rather than the environmental conditions that impacts the prevalence of CDR.
Why did abolishing fees not increase public school enrollment in Kenya?
- A large empirical literature has shown that user fees signicantly deter public service utilization in developing #countries. While most of these results reflect partial equilibrium analysis, we find that the nationwide abolition of public school fees in Kenya in 2003 led to no increase in net public enrollment rates, but rather a dramatic shift toward private schooling. Results suggest this divergence between partial- and general-equilibrium effects is partially explained by social interactions: the entry of poorer pupils into free education contributed to the exit of their more affluent peers.
The high return to private schooling in a low-income country
- Existing studies from the United States, Latin America, and Asia provide scant evidence that private schools dramatically improve academic performance relative to public schools. Using data from Kenya—a poor country with weak public institutions—we find a large effect of private schooling on test scores, equivalent to one full standard deviation. This finding is robust to endogenous sorting of more able pupils into private schools. The magnitude of the effect dwarfs the impact of any rigorously tested intervention to raise performance within public schools. Furthermore, nearly twothirds of private schools operate at lower cost than the median government school.
Modelling the impact of future climate and land use change on vegetation patterns, plant diversity and provisioning ecosystem services in West Africa
- Global climate change and land use change will not only alter entire ecosystems and biodiversity patterns, but also the supply of ecosystem services. A better understanding of the consequences is particularly needed in under-investigated regions, such as West Africa. The projected environmental changes suggest negative impacts on nature, thus representing a threat to the human well-being. However, many effects caused by climate and land use change are poorly understood so far. Thus, the main objective of this thesis was to investigate the impact of climate and land use change on vegetation patterns, plant diversity and important provisioning ecosystem services in West Africa. The three different aspects are separately explored and build the chapters of this thesis. The findings help to improve our understanding of the effects of environmental change on ecosystems and human well-being. In the first study, the main objectives were to model trends and the extent of future biome shifts in West Africa that may occur by 2050. Also, I modelled a trend in West African tree cover change, while accounting for human impact. Additionally, uncertainty in future climate projections was evaluated to identify regions with reliable trends and regions where the impacts remain uncertain. The potential future spatial distributions of desert, grassland, savanna, deciduous and evergreen forest were modelled in West Africa, using six bioclimatic models. Future tree cover change was analysed with generalized additive models (GAMs). I used climate data from 17 general circulation models (GCMs) and included human population density and fire intensity to model tree cover. Consensus projections were derived via weighted averages to: 1) reduce inter-model variability, and 2) describe trends extracted from different GCM projections. The strongest predicted effect of climate change was on desert and grasslands, where the bioclimatic envelope of grassland is projected to expand into the Sahara desert by an area of 2 million km2. While savannas are predicted to contract in the south (by 54 ± 22 × 104 km2), deciduous and evergreen forest biomes are expected to expand (64 ± 13 × 104 km2 and 77 ± 26 × 104 km2). However, uncertainty due to different GCMs was particularly high for the grassland and the evergreen forest biome shift. Increasing tree cover (1–10%) was projected for large parts of Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana and Togo, but a decrease was projected for coastal areas (1–20%). Furthermore, human impact negatively affected tree cover and partly changed the direction of the projected climate-driven tendency from increase to decrease. Considering climate change alone, the model results of potential vegetation (biomes) showed a ‘greening’ trend by 2050. However, the modelled effects of human impact suggest future forest degradation. Thus, it is essential to consider both climate change and human impact in order to generate realistic future projections on woody cover. The second study focused on the impact and the interplay of future (2050) climate and land use change on the plant diversity of the West African country Burkina Faso. Synergistic forecasts for this country are lacking to date. Burkina Faso covers a broad bioclimatic gradient which causes a similar gradient in plant diversity. Thus, the impact of climate and land use change can be investigated in regions with different levels of species richness. The LandSHIFT model from the Centre of Environmental System research CESR (Kassel, Germany) was adapted for this study to derive novel regional, spatially explicit future (2050) land use simulations for Burkina Faso. Additionally, the simulations include different assumptions on the technological developments in the agricultural sector. Oneclass support vector machines (SVMs), a machine learning method, were performed with these land use simulations together with current and future (2050) climate projections at a 0.1° resolution (cell: ~ 10 × 10 km). The modelling results showed that the flora of Burkina Faso will be primarily negatively impacted by future climate and land use changes. The species richness will be significantly reduced by 2050 (P < 0.001, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test). However, contrasting latitudinal patterns were found. Although climate change is predicted to cause species loss in the more humid regions in Southern Burkina Faso (~ 200 species per cell), the model projects an increase of species richness in the Sahel. However, land use change is expected to suppress this increase to the current species diversity level, depending on the technological developments. Climate change is a more important threat to the plant diversity than land use change under the assumption of technological stagnation in the agricultural sector. Overall, the study highlights the impact and interplay of future climate and land use change on plant diversity along a broad bioclimatic gradient in West Africa.Furthermore, the results suggest that plant diversity in dry and humid regions of the tropics might generally respond differently to climate and land use change. This pattern has not been detected by global studies so far. Several of the plant species in West Africa significantly contribute to the livelihoods of the population. The plants provide so-called non-timber forest products (NTFPs), which are important provisioning ecosystem services. However, these services are also threatened by environmental change. Thus, the third study aimed at developing a novel approach to assess the impacts of climate and land use change on the economic benefits derived from NTFPs. This project was carried out in cooperation with Katja Heubach (BiK-F) who provided data on household economics. These data include 60 interviews that were conducted in Northern Benin on annual quantities and revenues of collected NTFPs from the three most important savanna tree species: Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. The current market prices of the NTFPs were derived from respective local markets. To assess current and future (2050) occurrence probabilities of the three species, I calibrated niche-based models with climate data (from Miroc3.2medres) and land use data (LandSHIFT) at a 0.1° resolution (cell: ~ 10 × 10 km). Land use simulations were taken from the previous study on plant diversity. Three different niche-based models were used: 1) generalized additive models (regression method), 2) generalized boosting models (machine learning method), and 3) flexible discriminant analysis (classification method). The three model simulations were averaged (ensemble forecasting) to increase the robustness of the predictions. To assess future economic gains and losses, respectively, the modelled species’ occurrence probabilities were linked with the spatially assigned monetary values. Highest current annual benefits are obtained from V. paradoxa (54,111 ± 28,126 US$/cell), followed by P. biglobosa (32,246 ± 16,526 US$/cell) and A. digitata (9,514 ± 6,243 US$/cell). However, in the prediction large areas will lose up to 50% of their current economic value by 2050. Vitellaria paradoxa and Parkia biglobosa, which currently reveal the highest economic benefits, are heavily affected. Adansonia digitata is negatively affected less strongly by environmental change and might regionally even supply increasing economic benefits, in particular in the west and east of the investigation area. We conclude that adaptive strategies are needed to create alternative income opportunities, in particular for women that are responsible for collecting the NTFPs. The findings provide a benchmark for local policy-makers to economically compare different land use options and adjust existing management strategies for the near future. Overall, this thesis improves our understanding of the impacts of climate and land use changes on West African vegetation patterns, plant diversity and provisioning ecosystem services. Climate change had spatially varying impacts (positive and negative effects) on the vegetation cover and plant diversity, while predominantly negative effects resulted from human pressure. Regional contrasting impacts of environmental change were also found considering the provisioning ecosystem services.