## Physik

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- Investigation of the microscopic behavior of Mott insulators by means of the density functional theory and many-body methods (2012)
- The objective of this work is twofold. First, we explore the performance of the density functional theory (DFT) when it is applied to solids with strong electronic correlations, such as transition metal compounds. Along this direction, particular effort is put into the refinement and development of parameterization techniques for deriving effective models on a basis of DFT calculations. Second, within the framework of the DFT, we address a number of questions related to the physics of Mott insulators, such as magnetic frustration and electron-phonon coupling (Cs2CuCl4 and Cs2CuBr4), high-temperature superconductivity (BSCCO) and doping of Mott insulators (TiOCl). In the frustrated antiferromagnets Cs2CuCl4 and Cs2CuBr4, we investigate the interplay between strong electronic correlations and magnetism on one hand and electron-lattice coupling on the other as well as the effect of this interplay on the microscopic model parameters. Another object of our investigations is the oxygen-doped cuprate superconductor BSCCO, where nano-scale electronic inhomogeneities have been observed in scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments. By means of DFT and many-body calculations, we analyze the connection between the structural and electronic inhomogeneities and the superconducting properties of BSCCO. We use the DFT and molecular dynamic simulations to explain the microscopic origin of the persisting under doping Mott insulating state in the layered compound TiOCl.

- Interacting ultracold gases in optical lattices: non-equilibrium dynamics and effects of disorder (2012)
- This dissertation aims at giving a theoretical description of various applications of ultracold gases. A particular focus is cast upon the dynamical evolution of bosonic condensates in non-equilibrium by means of the time-dependent Gutzwiller method. Ground state properties of strongly interacting fermionic atoms in box and speckle disordered lattices are investigated via real-space dynamical mean-field theory. ...

- Strongly correlated ultracold gases in disordered optical lattices (2012)
- Seit Anbeginn der Festkörperphysik ist die Frage, warum manche Materialien metallisch sind, andere dagegen isolierend, von zentraler Bedeutung. Eine erste Erklärung wurde durch die Bändertheorie [23, 44] gegeben. Die Elektronen sind dem periodischen Potential der Rumpfatome ausgesetzt, wodurch ein Energiespektrum bestehend aus Bändern erzeugt wird und die Füllung dieser Bänder bestimmt die Leitungseigenschaften des Festkörpers. ...

- Thermal expansion studies on low-dimensional frustrated quantum magnets: the case of Kappa-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 and azurite (2012)
- Thermal expansion measurements provide a sensitive tool for exploring a material's thermodynamic properties in condensed matter physics as they provide useful information on the electronic, magnetic and lattice properties of a material. In this thesis, thermal expansion measurements have been carried out both at ambient-pressure and under hydrostatic pressure conditions. From the materials point of view, the spin-liquid candidate Kappa-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2(CN)3 has been studied extensively as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Azurite, Cu 3 (CO 3) 2 (OH) 2 - a realization of a one-dimensional distorted Heisenberg chain is also studied both at ambient and hydrostatic pressure to demonstrate the proper functioning of the newly built setup "thermal expansion under pressure". ...

- Coulomb dissociation of 31Cl and 32Ar - constraining the rp process (2012)
- The subject of this thesis aimed at a better understanding of the spectacular X-ray burst. The most likely astrophysical site is a very dense neutron star, which accretes H/He-rich matter from a close companion. While falling towards the neutron star, the matter is heated up and a thermonuclear runaway is ignited. The exact description of this process is dominated by the properties of a few proton-rich radioactive isotopes, which have a low interaction probability, hence a high abundance. The topic of this thesis was therefore an investigation of the short-lived, proton-rich isotopes 31Cl and 32Ar. The Coulomb dissociation method is the modern technique of choice. Excitations with energies up to 20 MeV can be induced by the Lorentz contracted Coulomb ﬁeld of a lead target. At the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt, Germany, a Ar beam was accelerated to an energy of 825 AMeV and fragmented in a beryllium target. The fragment separator was used to select the desired isotopes with a remaining energy of 650 AMeV. They were subsequently directed onto a 208 Pb target in the ALAND/LAND setup. The measurement was performed in inverse kinematics. All reaction products were detected and inclusive and exclusive measurements of the respective Coulomb dissociation cross sections were possible. During the analysis of the experiment, it was possible to extract the energy-diﬀerential excitation spectrum of 31Cl, and to constrain astrophysically important parameters for the time-reversed 30S(p,γ)31Cl reaction. A single resonance at 0.443(37) MeV dominates the stellar reaction rate, which was also deduced and compared to previous calculations. The integrated Coulomb dissociation cross section of this resonance was determined to 15(6) mb. The astrophysically important one- and two-proton emission channels were analyzed for 32Ar and energy-diﬀerential excitation spectra could be derived. The integrated Coulomb dissociation cross section for two proton emission were determined with two diﬀerent techniques. The inclusive measurement yields a cross section of 214(29stat)(20sys) mb, whereas the exclusive reconstruction results in a cross section of 226(14stat)(23sys) mb. Both results are in very good agreement. The Coulomb dissociation cross section for the one-proton emission channel is extracted solely from the exclusive measurement and is 54(8stat)(6sys) mb. Furthermore, the development of the Low Energy Neutron detector Array (LENA) for the upcoming R3B setup is described. The detector will be utilized in charge-exchange reactions to detect the low-energy recoil neutrons from (p,n)-type reactions. These reaction studies are of particular importance in the astrophysical context and can be used to constrain half lifes under stellar conditions. In the frame of this work, prototypes of the detector were built and successfully commissioned in several international laboratories. The analysis was supported by detailed simulations of the detection characteristics.

- Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke : Optimierungsverfahren und Anwendungen (2012)
- Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke bzw. Zellulare Neuronale Netzwerke, sogenannte CNN, wurden 1988 von L.O. Chua und L.Yang eingeführt und seither intensiv untersucht. Diese sind als Simulations-Software und als schaltungstechnische Realisierungen, in Hardware, verfügbar. Als analog arbeitende Hardware Schaltungen können diese Netzwerke erhebliche Rechenleistungen erzielen. Durch ihren Aufbau ermöglichen sie eine parallele Daten- und Signalverarbeitung. Eine Einführung in CNN wird gegeben und das EyeRIS 1.1 Systems des Unternehmens ANAFOCUS Ltd. vorgestellt. Das EyeRIS 1.1 System ist mit einem analog arbeitenden Focal Plane Prozessor (FPP) und einem digitalen Prozessor ausgestattet, wobei der Focal Plane Prozessor auch als Kamera zur Aufnahme von Bildern und Bildsequenzen benutzt werden kann. Dies ermöglicht es, analoge CNN-Algorithmen zusammen mit digitalen Algorithmen auf einem System zu implementieren und so die Vorteile beider Ansätze zu nutzen. Der Datenaustausch zwischen dem analogen und digitalem Teil des EyeRIS 1.1 Systems geschieht mittels digital/analog und analog/digital Wandlung. Es werden Algorithmen auf dem EyeRIS 1.1 System untersucht und mit Ergebnissen die mittels Simulationen erzeugt wurden verglichen. In Voruntersuchungen werden die Darstellungsgenauigkeit von Werten im analogen Teil des EyeRIS 1.1 Systems und die Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeiten des EyeRIS 1.1 Systems untersucht. Im Weiteren wird besonderes Augenmerk auf medizinische und technische Anwendungsgebiete gelegt werden. Im medizinischen Anwendungsbereich wird die Implementierung von Algorithmen zur Vorhersage epileptischer Anfälle untersucht. Hierfür wird ein evolutionär motiviertes Optimierungsverfahren entwicklet und auf dem EyeRIS 1.1-System implementiert. Hierbei werden Simulationen durchgeführt und mit Ergebnissen, die mittels Verwendung des EyeRIS 1.1 Systems erlangt wurden, verglichen. Ein zweites Verfahren geht die Signalanalyse für die Vorhersage auf dem EyeRIS 1.1-System mittels Mustererkennung an. Das Mustererkennungsverfahren wird eingehend beschrieben sowie die hierbei zu beachtenden Randbedingungen erläutert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, daß Algorithmen zur Vorhersage von epileptischen Anfällen auf schaltungstechnichen Realisierungen von CNN implementiert werden können. Im technischen Bereich wird die Anwendbarkeit auf die Problemstellung der Bildverarbeitung gelegt und die Möglichkeit von CNN basierten Algorithmen zur Erkennung von Prozessparametern bei Laserschweißverfahren untersucht. Ein solcher Prozessparameter ist das sogenannte Key-Hole, welches in Bildsequenzen von Laserschweißprozessen als ein Maß für die zu erwartende Qualität einer Schweißnaht herangezogen werden kann. Ein CNN basierter Algorithmus für die Erkennung solcher Key-Holes wird in dieser Arbeit vorgestellt und untersucht. Für die Überwachung eines Laserschweißverfahrens wird der entwickelte Algorithmius und seine Funktionsweise beschrieben. Dieser wird in Teilalgorithmen auf die analog bzw. digital arbeitenden Komponenten des EyeRIS 1.1 Systems verteilt. Die Teilalgorithmen und die möglichen Aufteilungen und deren Laufzeitverhalten werden beschrieben und untersucht. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zeigen, daß eine Prozessüberwachung mittels CNN möglich ist und heben die Vorteile hervor, welche die Bildaufnahme und -verarbeitung mittels analoger CNN-Hardware bietet. Eine Untersuchung des Laufzeitverhaltens auf Grafikkarten Prozessoren (GPU's) wird im Anhang vorgestellt.

- Shedding light on reaction mechanisms : structure determination of reactive intermediates and investigation of protein structural dynamics using 2D-IR spectroscopy (2012)
- Detailed knowledge of reaction mechanisms is key to understanding chemical, biological, and biophysical processes. For many reasons, it is desirable to comprehend how a reaction proceeds and what influences the reaction rate and its products. In biophysics, reaction mechanisms provide insight into enzyme and protein function, the reason why they are so efficient, and what determines their reaction rates. They also reveal the relationship between the function of a protein and its structure and dynamics. In chemistry, reaction mechanisms are able to explain side products, solvent effects, and the stereochemistry of a product. They are also the basis for potentially optimizing reactions with respect to yield, enhancing the stereoselectivity, or for modifying reactions in order to obtain other related products. A key step to investigate reaction mechanisms is the identification and characterization of intermediates, which may be reactive, short-lived, and therefore only weakly populated. Nowadays, the structures of those can in most cases only be hypothesized based on products, side products, and isolable intermediates, because intermediates with a life time of less than a few microseconds are not accessible with the commonly used techniques for structure determination such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this thesis, two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy is shown to be a powerful complement to the existing techniques for structure determination in solution. 2D-IR spectroscopy uses a femtosecond laser setup to investigate interactions between vibrations - analogous to 2D-NMR, which investigates the interactions between spins. Its ultrafast time resolution makes 2D-IR spectroscopy particularly well suited for the two topics investigated in this thesis: Structure Determination of Reactive Intermediates and Conformational Dynamics of Proteins. Structure Determination of Reactive Intermediates: The focus of this thesis is using polarization-dependent 2D-IR (P2D-IR) spectroscopy for structure determination of N-crotonyloxazolidinone (referred to as 1), a small organic compound with a chiral oxazolidinone, known as Evans auxiliary, and its reactive complexes with the Lewis acids SnCl4 and Mg(ClO4)2. Chiral oxazolidinones in combination with Lewis acids have frequently been used in stereoselective synthesis for over 30 years. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms are in many cases xvi ABSTRACT still mere hypotheses and have not yet been experimentally proven. By accurately measuring the angles between the transition dipole moments in the molecules using an optimized P2D-IR setup and comparing the results to DFT calculations, the conformation of 1 and the conformation and coordination of the main complexes with SnCl4 and Mg(ClO4)2 are unequivocally identified and analyzed in depth. Structural details, such as a slight twist in the solution structure of 1, are detected using P2D-IR spectroscopy; these cannot be inferred from NMR spectroscopy or DFT calculations. In addition to the main Lewis acid complexes, complexes in low concentration are detected and tentatively assigned to different conformations and complexation geometries. The knowledge of those structures is essential for rationalizing the observed stereoselectivities. Additionally, a method is introduced that enables structure determination of molecules in complex mixtures and even in the presence of molecules with similar spectral properties and in high concentration. This work sets the stage for future studies of other substrate-catalyst complexes and reaction intermediates for which the structure determination has not been possible to date. Conformational Dynamics of Proteins: Exchange 2D-IR spectroscopy allows the investigation of fast dynamics without disturbing the equilibrium of the exchanging species. It is therefore well suited to investigate fast dynamics of proteins and to reveal the speed limit of those. The temperature dependence of the conformational dynamics between the myoglobin substates A1 and A3 in equilibrium is analyzed. The various substates of myoglobin can be detected with FTIR spectroscopy, if carbon monoxide is bound to the heme. From previous studies it is known that the exchange rates at room temperature are in the picosecond time range, well suited to be investigated by 2D-IR spectroscopy. In the temperature range between 0 °C and 40 °C only a weak temperature dependence of the exchange rate in the myoglobin mutant L29I is observed in the present study. The exchange rate approximately doubles from 15 ns-1 at 0 °C to 31 ns-1 at 40 °C. It turned out that the conformational dynamics correlates linearly with the solvent viscosity, which itself is temperature dependent. Comparing our results to measurements at cryogenic temperatures, the linear relation between exchange time constant for this process and the viscosity is shown for the temperature range between -100 °C and 40 °C (corresponding to a viscosity change of 14 orders of magnitude). Thus, it is proven that the dynamics of the conformational switching are mainly determined by solvent dynamics, i.e., the protein dynamics are slaved to the solvent dynamics. This is the first time slaving is observed for such fast processes (in the picosecond time range). The observation implies a long-range structural rearrangement between the myoglobin substates A1 and A3. In addition, the exchange for other mutants and wild type myoglobin is analyzed qualitatively and found to agree with the conclusions drawn from L29I myoglobin.

- Dynamical effects and disorder in ultracold bosonic matter (2012)
- In this thesis, various aspects on the theoretical description of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices are investigated. After giving a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts of BECs, atomic physics, interatomic interactions and experimental procedures in chapter (1), we derive the Bose-Hubbard model from first principles in chapter (2). In this chapter, we also introduce and discuss a technique to efficiently determine Wannier states, which, in contrast to current techniques, can also be extended to inhomogeneous systems. This technique is later extended to higher dimensional, non-separable lattices in chapter (5). The many-body physics and phases of the Bose-Hubbard is shortly presented in chapter (3) in conjunction with Gutzwiller mean-field theory, and the recently devised projection operator approach. We then return to the derivation of an improved microscopic many-body Hamiltonian, which contains higher band contributions in the presence of interactions in chapter (4). We then move on to many-particle theory. To demonstrate the conceptual relations required in the following chapter, we derive Bogoliubov theory in chapter (5.3.4) in three different ways and discuss the connections. Furthermore, this derivation goes beyond the usual version discussed in most textbooks and papers, as it accounts for the fact, that the quasi-particle Hamiltonian is not diagonalizable in the condensate and the eigenvectors have to be completed by additional vectors to form a basis. This leads to a qualitatively different quasi-particle Hamiltonian and more intricate transformation relations as a result. In the following two chapters (7, 8), we derive an extended quasi-particle theory, which goes beyond Bogoliubov theory and is not restricted to weak interactions or a large condensate fraction. This quasi-particle theory naturally contains additional modes, such as the amplitude mode in the strongly interacting condensate. Bragg spectroscopy, a momentum-resolved spectroscopic technique, is introduced and used for the first experimental detection of the amplitude mode at finite quasi-momentum in chapter (9). The closely related lattice modulation spectroscopy is discussed in chapter (10). The results of a time-dependent simulation agree with experimental data, suggesting that also the amplitude mode, and not the sound mode, was probed in these experiments. In chapter (11) the dynamics of strongly interacting bosons far from equilibrium in inhomogeneous potentials is explored. We introduce a procedure that, in conjunction with the collapse and revival of the condensate, can be used to create exotic condensates, while particularly focusing on the case of a quadratic trapping potential. Finally, in chapter (12), we turn towards the physics of disordered systems derive and discuss in detail the stochastic mean-field theory for the disordered Bose-Hubbard model.

- Density functional theory and dynamical mean field theory: applications to correlated electron materials (2012)
- The study of systems whose properties are governed by electronic correlations is a corner stone of modern solid-state physics. Often, such systems feature unique and distinct properties like Mott metal-insulator transitions, rich phase diagrams, and high sensitivity to subtle changes in the applied conditions. Whereas the standard approach to electronic structure calculations, density functional theory (DFT), is able to address the complexity of real-world materials but is known to have serious limitations in the description of correlations, the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) has become an established method for the treatment of correlated fermions, first on the level of minimal models and later in combination with DFT, termed LDA+DMFT. This thesis presents theoretical calculations on different materials exhibiting correlated physics, where we aim at covering a range in terms of systems --from rather weakly correlated to strongy correlated-- as well as in terms of methods, from DFT calculations to combined LDA+DMFT calculations. We begin with a study on a selection of iron pnictides, a recently discovered family of high-temperature superconductors with varying degree of correlation strength, and show that their magnetic and optical properties can be assessed to some degree within DFT, despite the correlated nature of these systems. Next, extending our analysis to the inclusion of correlations in the framework of LDA+DMFT, we discuss the electronic structure of the iron pnictide LiFeAs which we find to be well described by Fermi liquid theory with regard to many of its properties, yet we see distinct changes in its Fermi surface upon inclusion of correlations. We continue the study of low-energy properties and specifically Fermi surfaces on two more iron pnictides, LaFePO and LiFeP, and predict a topology change of their Fermi surfaces due to the effect of correlations, with possible implications for their superconducting properties. In our last study, we close the circle by presenting LDA+DMFT calculations on an organic molecular crystal on the verge of a Mott metal-insulator transition; there, we find the spectral and optical properties to display signatures of strong electronic correlations beyond Fermi liquid theory.