Verification of Monte Carlo transport codes by activation experiments
- With the increasing energies and intensities of heavy-ion accelerator facilities, the problem of an excessive activation of the accelerator components caused by beam losses becomes more and more important. Numerical experiments using Monte Carlo transport codes are performed in order to assess the levels of activation. The heavy-ion versions of the codes were released approximately a decade ago, therefore the verification is needed to be sure that they give reasonable results. Present work is focused on obtaining the experimental data on activation of the targets by heavy-ion beams. Several experiments were performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung. The interaction of nitrogen, argon and uranium beams with aluminum targets, as well as interaction of nitrogen and argon beams with copper targets was studied. After the irradiation of the targets by different ion beams from the SIS18 synchrotron at GSI, the γ-spectroscopy analysis was done: the γ-spectra of the residual activity were measured, the radioactive nuclides were identified, their amount and depth distribution were detected. The obtained experimental results were compared with the results of the Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA, MARS and SHIELD. The discrepancies and agreements between experiment and simulations are pointed out. The origin of discrepancies is discussed. Obtained results allow for a better verification of the Monte Carlo transport codes, and also provide information for their further development. The necessity of the activation studies for accelerator applications is discussed. The limits of applicability of the heavy-ion beam-loss criteria were studied using the FLUKA code. FLUKA-simulations were done to determine the most preferable from the radiation protection point of view materials for use in accelerator components.
Ultrasonic and magnetic investigations in frustrated low-dimensional spin systems
Thanh Cong Pham
Thermal expansion studies on low-dimensional frustrated quantum magnets: the case of Kappa-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 and azurite
Rudra Sekhar Manna
- Thermal expansion measurements provide a sensitive tool for exploring a material's thermodynamic
properties in condensed matter physics as they provide useful information
on the electronic, magnetic and lattice properties of a material. In this thesis, thermal
expansion measurements have been carried out both at ambient-pressure and under hydrostatic
pressure conditions. From the materials point of view, the spin-liquid candidate
Kappa-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2(CN)3 has been studied extensively as a function of temperature and
magnetic field. Azurite, Cu 3 (CO 3) 2 (OH) 2 - a realization of a one-dimensional distorted
Heisenberg chain is also studied both at ambient and hydrostatic pressure to demonstrate
the proper functioning of the newly built setup "thermal expansion under pressure". ...
The production of _j63 [eta] and _w63 [omega] mesons in 3.5 GeV p+p interaction in HADES
- The study of meson production in proton-proton collisions in the energy range
up to one GeV above the production threshold provides valuable information about
the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Theoretical models describe the interaction
between nucleons via the exchange of mesons. In such models, different
mechanisms contribute to the production of the mesons in nucleon-nucleon collisions.
The measurement of total and differential production cross sections provide information
which can help in determining the magnitude of the various mechanisms.
Moreover, such cross section information serves as an input to the transport calculations
which describe e.g. the production of e+e− pairs in proton- and pion-induced
reactions as well as in heavy ion collisions.
In this thesis, the production of ω and η mesons in proton-proton collisions at 3.5
GeV beam energy was studied using the High Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer
(HADES) installed at the Schwerionensynchrotron (SIS 18) at the Helmholtzzenturm
f¨ur Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt.
About 80 000 ω mesons and 35 000 η mesons were reconstructed. Total production
cross sections of both mesons were determined. Furthermore, the collected statistics
allowed for extracting angular distributions of both mesons as well as performing
Dalitz plot studies.
The ω and η mesons were reconstructed via their decay into three pions (π+π−π0)
in the exclusive reaction pp −→ ppπ+π−π0. The charged particles were identified
via their characteristic energy loss, via the measurement of their time of flight and
momentum, or using kinematics.
The neutral pion was reconstructed using the missing mass method. A kinematic
fit was applied to improve the resolution and to select events in which a π0 was
The correction of measured yields for the effects of spectrometer acceptance was done
as a function of four variables (two invariant masses and two angles). Systematic
studies of the acceptance for different input distributions were performed.
The measured yields were normalized to the number of measured events of elastic
scattering. Systematic errors due to the methods of the data analysis and the
background subtraction were investigated.
Production angular distributions of ω and η mesons were measured. Both mesons
exhibit a slightly anisotropic angular distribution.
The Dalitz plot of ω meson production shows indications of resonant production.
However, the deviation of the distribution from the one expected by phase space
simulations is not large.
The Dalitz plot of η meson production shows a signal of the production via the
N(1535) resonance, The contribution of N(1535) to the production was quantified
to be about 47%. The angular distribution of η mesons does not show significant
differences between resonant and non resonant production.
The total production cross section of ω mesons in the reaction pp −→ ppω was
determined to be 106.5 ± 0.9 (stat) ± 7.9 (sys) [μb] where stat indicates statistical
error and sys indicates systematic error, while that of η mesons was determined to
be 136.9 ± 0.9 (stat) ± 10.1 (sys) [μb] in the reaction pp −→ ppη
Study of QCD-like theories at nonzero temperatures and densities
- In this thesis I use effective models to investigate the properties of QCD-like
theories at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential.
First I construct a PNJL model using a lattice spin model with nearestneighbor
interactions for the gauge sector and four-fermion interactions for
the quarks in (pseudo)real representations of the gauge group. Calculating
the phase diagram in the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential
in QCD with adjoint quarks, it is qualitatively confirmed that the critical
temperature of the chiral phase transition is much higher than the deconfinement
transition temperature. At a chemical potential equal to half of the
diquark mass in the vacuum, a diquark Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC)
phase transition occurs. In the two-color case, a Ginzburg–Landau expansion
is used to study the tetracritical behavior around the intersection point
of the deconfinement and BEC transition lines which are both of second order.
A compact expression for the expectation value of the Polyakov loop in
an arbitrary representation of the gauge group is obtained for any number of
colors, which allows us to study Casimir scaling at both nonzero temperature
and chemical potential.
Subsequently I study the thermodynamics of two-color QCD (QC2D) at
high temperature and/or density using ZQCD, a dimensionally reduced superrenormalizable
effective theory, formulated in terms of a coarse grained
Wilson line. In the absence of quarks, the theory is required to respect the Z2
center symmetry, while the effects of quarks of arbitrary masses and chemical
potentials are introduced via soft Z2 breaking operators. Perturbative
matching of the effective theory parameters to the full theory is carried out
explicitly, and it is argued how the new theory can be used to explore the
phase diagram of two-color QCD.
Strongly correlated ultracold gases in disordered optical lattices
- Seit Anbeginn der Festkörperphysik ist die Frage, warum manche Materialien
metallisch sind, andere dagegen isolierend, von zentraler Bedeutung. Eine erste
Erklärung wurde durch die Bändertheorie [23, 44] gegeben. Die Elektronen
sind dem periodischen Potential der Rumpfatome ausgesetzt, wodurch ein
Energiespektrum bestehend aus Bändern erzeugt wird und die Füllung dieser
Bänder bestimmt die Leitungseigenschaften des Festkörpers. ...
Shedding light on reaction mechanisms : structure determination of reactive intermediates and investigation of protein structural dynamics using 2D-IR spectroscopy
Andreas T. Meßmer
- Detailed knowledge of reaction mechanisms is key to understanding chemical, biological, and biophysical processes. For many reasons, it is desirable to comprehend how a reaction proceeds and what influences the reaction rate and its products.
In biophysics, reaction mechanisms provide insight into enzyme and protein function, the reason why they are so efficient, and what determines their reaction rates. They also reveal the relationship between the function of a protein and its structure and dynamics.
In chemistry, reaction mechanisms are able to explain side products, solvent effects, and the stereochemistry of a product. They are also the basis for potentially optimizing reactions with respect to yield, enhancing the stereoselectivity, or for modifying reactions in order to obtain other related products.
A key step to investigate reaction mechanisms is the identification and characterization of intermediates, which may be reactive, short-lived, and therefore only weakly populated. Nowadays, the structures of those can in most cases only be hypothesized based on products, side products, and isolable intermediates, because intermediates with a life time of less than a few microseconds are not accessible with the commonly used techniques for structure determination such as X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
In this thesis, two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy is shown to be a powerful complement to the existing techniques for structure determination in solution. 2D-IR spectroscopy uses a femtosecond laser setup to investigate interactions between vibrations - analogous to 2D-NMR, which investigates the interactions between spins. Its ultrafast time resolution makes 2D-IR spectroscopy particularly well suited for the two topics investigated in this thesis: Structure Determination of Reactive Intermediates and Conformational Dynamics of Proteins.
Structure Determination of Reactive Intermediates: The focus of this thesis is using polarization-dependent 2D-IR (P2D-IR) spectroscopy for structure determination of N-crotonyloxazolidinone (referred to as 1), a small organic compound with a chiral oxazolidinone, known as Evans auxiliary, and its reactive complexes with the Lewis acids SnCl4 and Mg(ClO4)2. Chiral oxazolidinones in combination with Lewis acids have frequently been used in stereoselective synthesis for over 30 years. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanisms are in many cases xvi ABSTRACT still mere hypotheses and have not yet been experimentally proven. By accurately measuring the angles between the transition dipole moments in the molecules using an optimized P2D-IR setup and comparing the results to DFT calculations, the conformation of 1 and the conformation and coordination of the main complexes with SnCl4 and Mg(ClO4)2 are unequivocally identified and analyzed in depth. Structural details, such as a slight twist in the solution structure of 1, are detected using P2D-IR spectroscopy; these cannot be inferred from NMR spectroscopy or DFT calculations. In addition to the main Lewis acid complexes, complexes in low concentration are detected and tentatively assigned to different conformations and complexation geometries. The knowledge of those structures is essential for rationalizing the observed stereoselectivities. Additionally, a method is introduced that enables structure determination of molecules in complex mixtures and even in the presence of molecules with similar spectral properties and in high concentration. This work sets the stage for future studies of other substrate-catalyst complexes and reaction intermediates for which the structure determination has not been possible to date.
Conformational Dynamics of Proteins: Exchange 2D-IR spectroscopy allows the investigation of fast dynamics without disturbing the equilibrium of the exchanging species. It is therefore well suited to investigate fast dynamics of proteins and to reveal the speed limit of those. The temperature dependence of the conformational dynamics between the myoglobin substates A1 and A3 in equilibrium is analyzed. The various substates of myoglobin can be detected with FTIR spectroscopy, if carbon monoxide is bound to the heme. From previous studies it is known that the exchange rates at room temperature are in the picosecond time range, well suited to be investigated by 2D-IR spectroscopy. In the temperature range between 0 °C and 40 °C only a weak temperature dependence of the exchange rate in the myoglobin mutant L29I is observed in the present study. The exchange rate approximately doubles from 15 ns-1 at 0 °C to 31 ns-1 at 40 °C. It turned out that the conformational dynamics correlates linearly with the solvent viscosity, which itself is temperature dependent. Comparing our results to measurements at cryogenic temperatures, the linear relation between exchange time constant for this process and the viscosity is shown for the temperature range between -100 °C and 40 °C (corresponding to a viscosity change of 14 orders of magnitude). Thus, it is proven that the dynamics of the conformational switching are mainly determined by solvent dynamics, i.e., the protein dynamics are slaved to the solvent dynamics. This is the first time slaving is observed for such fast processes (in the picosecond time range). The observation implies a long-range structural rearrangement between the myoglobin substates A1 and A3. In addition, the exchange for other mutants and wild type myoglobin is analyzed qualitatively and found to agree with the conclusions drawn from L29I myoglobin.
RF acceleration of intense laser generated proton bunches
Resonant pickups for non-destructive single-particle detection in heavy-ion storage rings and first experimental results
Mohammad Shahab Sanjari
Mechanisms of nanofractal structure formation and post-growth evolution
Veronika V. Dick
- Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing branch of science, which is focused on the study of phenomena at the nanometer scale, in particular related to the possibilities of matter manipulation. One of the main goals of nanotechnology is the development of controlled, reproducible, and industrially transposable nanostructured materials.
The conventional technique of thin-film growth by deposition of atoms, small atomic clusters and molecules on surfaces is the general method, which is often used in nanotechnology for production of new materials. Recent experiments show, that patterns with different morphology can be formed in the course of nanoparticles deposition process on a surface. In this context, predicting of the final architecture of the growing materials is a fundamental problem worth studying.
Another factor, which plays an important role in industrial applications of new materials, is the question of post-growth stability of deposited structures. The understanding of the post-growth relaxation processes would give a possibility to estimate the lifetime of the deposited material depending on the conditions at which the material was fabricated. Controllable post-growth manipulations with the architecture of deposited structures opens new path for engineering of nanostructured materials.
The task of this thesis is to advance understanding mechanisms of formation and post-growth evolution of nanostructured materials fabricated by atomic clusters deposition on a surface. In order to achieve this goal the following main problems were addressed:
1. The properties of isolated clusters can significantly differ from those of analogous clusters occurring on a solid surface. The difference is caused by the interaction between the cluster and the solid. Therefore, the understanding of structural and dynamical properties of an atomic cluster on a surface is a topic of intense interest from the scientific and technological point of view. In the thesis, stability, energy, and geometry of an atomic cluster on a solid surface were studied using a liquid drop approach which takes into account the cluster-solid interaction. Geometries of the deposited clusters are compared with those of isolated clusters and the differences are discussed.
2. The formation scenarios of patterns on a surface in the course of the process of cluster deposition depend strongly on the dynamics of deposited clusters. Therefore, an important step towards predicting pattern morphology is to study dynamics of a single cluster on a surface. The process of cluster diffusion on a surface was modeled with the use of classical molecular dynamics technique, and the diffusion coefficients for the silver nanoclusters were obtained from the analysis of trajectories of the clusters. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the system’s temperature and cluster-surface interaction was established. The results of the calculations are compared with the available experimental results for the diffusion coefficient of silver clusters on graphite surface.
3. The methods of classical molecular dynamics cannot be used for modeling the self-assembly processes of atomic clusters on a surface, because these processes occur on the minutes timescale, what would require an unachievable computer resource for the simulation. Based on the results of molecular dynamics simulations for a single cluster on a surface a Monte-Carlo based approach has been developed to describe the dynamics of the self-assembly of nanoparticles on a surface. This method accounts for the free particle diffusion on a surface, aggregation into islands and detachment from these islands. The developed method is allowed to study pattern formation of structures up to thousands nm, as well as the stability of these structures. Developed method was implemented in MBN Explorer computer package.
4. The process of the pattern formation on a surface was modeled for several different scenarios. Based on the analysis of results of simulations was suggested a criterion, which can be used to distinguish between different patterns formed on a surface, for example: between fractals or compact islands.This criteria can be used to predict the final morphology of a growing structure.
5. The post-growth evolution of patterns on a surface was also analyzed. In particular, attention in the thesis is payed to a systematical theoretical analysis of the post-growth processes occurring in nanofractals on a surface. The time evolution of fractal morphology in the course of the post-growth relaxation was analyzed, the results of these calculations were compared with experimental data available for the post-growth relaxation of silver cluster fractals on graphite substrate.
All the aforementioned problems are discussed in details in the thesis.