Open heavy flavor and other hard probes in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions
- In this thesis hard probes are studied in the partonic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to MultiParton Scatterings). Employing Monte Carlo techniques, this model describes the 3+1 dimensional evolution of the quark gluon plasma phase in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions by propagating all particles in space and time and carrying out their collisions according to the Boltzmann equation. Since hard probes are produced in hard processes with a large momentum transfer, the value of the running coupling is small and their interactions should be describable within perturbative QCD (pQCD). This work focuses on open heavy flavor, but also addresses the suppression of light parton jets, in particular to highlight differences due to the mass. For light partons, radiative processes are the dominant contribution to their energy loss. For heavy quarks, we show that also binary interactions with a running coupling and an improved Debye screening matched to hard-thermal-loop calculations play an important role. Furthermore, the impact of the mass in radiative interactions, prominently named the dead cone effect, and the interplay with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect are studied in great detail. Since the transport model BAMPS has access to all medium properties and the space time information of heavy quarks, it is the ideal tool to study the dissociation and regeneration of J/psi mesons, which is also investigated in this thesis.
Measurement and interpretation of laser accelerated protons at GSI
- This thesis is structured into 7 chapters:
• Chapter 2 gives an overview of the ultrashort high intensity laser interaction with matter. The laser interaction with an induced plasma is described, starting from the kinematics of single electron motion, followed by collective electron effects and the ponderamotive motion in the laser focus and the plasma transparency for the laser beam. The three different mechanisms prepared to accelerate and propagate electrons through matter are discussed. The following indirect acceleration of protons is explained by the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Finally some possible applications of laser accelerated protons are explained briefly.
• Chapter 3 deals with the modeling of geometry and field mapping of magnetic lens. Initial proton and electron distributions, fitted to PHELIX measured data are generated, a brief description of employed codes and used techniques in simulation is given, and the aberrations at the solenoid focal spot is studied.
• Chapter 4 presents a simulation study for suggested corrections to optimize the proton beam as a later beam source. Two tools have been employed in these suggested corrections, an aperture placed at the solenoid focal spot as energy selection tool, and a scattering foil placed in the proton beam to smooth the radial energy beam profile correlation at the focal spot due to chromatic aberrations. Another suggested correction has been investigated, to optimize the beam radius at the focal spot by lens geometry controlling.
• Chapter 5 presents a simulation study for the de-neutralization problem in TNSA caused by the fringing fields of pulsed magnetic solenoid and quadrupole. In this simulation, we followed an electrostatic model, wherethe evolution of both, self and mutual fields through the pulsed magnetic solenoid could be found, which is not the case in the quadrupole and only the growth of self fields could be found. The field mapping of magnetic elements is generated by the Matlab program, while the TraceWin code is employed to study the tracking through magnetic elements.
• Chapter 6 describes the PHELIX laser parameters at GSI with chirp pulse amplification technique (CPA), and Gafchromic Radiochromic film RCF) as a spatial energy resolver film detector. The results of experiments with laser proton acceleration, which were performed in two experimental areas at GSI (Z6 area and PHELIX Laser Hall (PLH)), are presented in section 6.3.
• Chapter 7 includes the main results of this work, conclusions and gives a perspective for future experimental activities.
Low-energy effective models for two-flavor quantum chromodynamics and the universality hypothesis
Modelling radiation fields of ion beams in tissue-like materials
Lucas Norberto Burigo
- Fast nuclei are ionizing radiation which can cause deleterious effects to irradiated cells. The modelling of the interactions of such ions with matter and the related effects are very important to physics, radiobiology, medicine and space science and technology. A powerful method to study the interactions of ionizing radiation with biological systems was developed in the field of microdosimetry. Microdosimetry spectra characterize the energy deposition to objects of cellular size, i.e., a few micrometers.
In the present thesis the interaction of ions with tissue-like media was investigated using the Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) developed at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies. MCHIT is a Geant4-based application intended to benchmark the physical models of Geant4 and investigate the physical properties of therapeutic ion beams. We have implemented new features in MCHIT in order to calculate microdosimetric quantities characterizing the radiation fields of accelerated nucleons and nuclei. The results of our Monte Carlo simulations were compared with recent experimental microdosimetry data.
In addition to microdosimetry calculations with MCHIT, we also investigated the biological properties of ion beams, e.g. their relative biological effectiveness (RBE), by means of the modified Microdosimetric-Kinetic model (MKM). The MKM uses microdosimetry spectra in describing cell response to radiation. MCHIT+MKM allowed us to study the physical and biological properties of ion beams. The main results of the thesis are as follows:
MCHIT is able to describe the spatial distribution of the physical dose in tissue-like media and microdosimetry spectra for ions with energies relevant to space research and ion-beam cancer therapy; MCHIT+MKM predicts a reduction of the biological effectiveness of ions propagating in extended medium due to nuclear fragmentation reactions; We predicted favourable biological dose-depth profiles for monoenergetic helium and lithium beams similar to the one for carbon beam. Well-adjusted biological dose distributions for H-1, He-4, C-12 and O-16 with a very flat spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) plateau were calculated with MCHIT+MKM; MCHIT+MKM predicts less damage to healthy tissues in the entrance channel for SOBP He-4 and C-12 beams compared to H-1 and O-16 ones. No definitive advantages for oxygen ions with respect to carbon were found.
Tuning and optimization of the field distribution for 4-Rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole Linacs
Janet Susan Schmidt
- In this thesis, the tuning process of the 4-rod Radio Frequency Quadrupole has been analyzed and a theory for the prediction of the tuning plate's influence on the longitudinal voltage distribution was developed together with RF design options for the optimization of the fringe fields.
The basic principles of the RFQ's particle dynamics and resonant behavior are introduced in the theory part of this thesis. All studies that are presented are based on the work on four RFQs of recent linac projects. These RFQs are described in one chapter. Here, the projects are introduced together with details about the RFQ parameters and performance. In the meantime two of these RFQs are in full operation at NSCL at MSU and FNAL. One is operating in the test phase of the MedAustron Cancer Therapy Center and the fourth one for LANL is about to be built. The longitudinal voltage distribution has been studied in detail with a focus on the influence of the RF design with tuning elements and parameters like the electrodes overlap or the distance between stems. The theory for simulation methods for the field flatness that were developed as part of this thesis, as well as its simulation with CST MWS have been analyzed and compared to measurements. The lumped circuit model has proven to predict results with an accuracy that can be used in the tuning process of 4-rod RFQs. Together with results from the tuning studies, the studies on the fringe fields of the 4-rod structure lead to a proposal for a 4-rod RFQ model with an improved field distribution in the transverse and longitudinal electric field.
Development of terahertz vacuum electronics for array receivers
- Heterodyne array receivers are employed in radio astronomy to reduce the observing time needed for mapping extended sources. One of the main factors limiting the amount of pixels in terahertz receivers is the difficulty of generating a sufficient amount of local oscillator power. Another challenge is efficient diplexing and coupling of local oscillator and signal power to the detectors. These problems are attacked in this dissertation by proposing the application of two vacuum electronic terahertz amplifier types for the amplification of the LO-signal and by introducing a new method for finding the defects in a quasioptical diplexer.
A traveling wave tube (TWT) design based on a square helix slow wave structure (SWS) at 825 GHz is introduced. It exhibits a simulated small-signal gain of 18.3 dB and a 3-dB bandwidth of 69 GHz. In order to generate LO-power at even higher frequencies, the operation of an 850-GHz square helix TWT as a frequency doubler has been studied. A simulated conversion efficiency of 7% to 1700 GHz, comparable with the state-of-art solid-state doublers, has been achieved for an input power of 25 mW.
The other amplifier type discussed in this work is a 1-THz cascade backward wave amplifier based on a double corrugated waveguide SWS. Specifically, three input/output coupler types between a rectangular waveguide and the SWS are presented. The structures have been realized with microfabrication, and the results of loss measurements at 1 THz will be shown.
Diplexing of the LO- and signal beams is often performed with a Martin-Puplett interferometer. Misalignment and deformation of the quasioptical components causes the polarization state of the output signal to be incorrect, which leads to coupling losses. A ray-tracing program has been developed for studying the influence of such defects. The measurement results of the diplexer of a multi-pixel terahertz receiver operated at the APEX telescope have been analyzed with the program, and the results are presented. The program allows the quasioptical configuration of the diplexer to be corrected in order to obtain higher receiver sensitivity.
Studies on the focusing performance of a Gabor lens depending on nonneutral plasma properties
- The concept of the Gabor lens goes back to an idea by Dennis Gabor, who proposed a magnetron-type trap as an effective diverging lens for electron beams (collecting lens for positive ion beams).
Electrons confined inside the lens volume by orthogonal magnetic and electric fields, create an electric space charge field that causes a radial symmetric focusing force on an ion beam passing through the lens volume.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, a new design of this lens type as well as numerical models to describe the confined plasma cloud have been developed at the Institute for Applied Physics (IAP, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt).
Thanks to an improved understanding of the plasma confinement as a function of the external fields, two lenses have successfully been tested for low beam currents and remain in operation.
In the scope of this work, the performance of a prototype Gabor lens for the transport of intense, i.e. space charge dominated ion beams, was investigated at the High Current Test Injector (HOSTI) of GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH for the first time.
To ensure an optimal focusing performance of the Gabor lens a homogeneous and stable electron confinement is required. Therefore, new non-interceptive diagnostic methods were developed to investigate the parameters and state of the confined nonneutral plasma column as a function of the external fields.
An essential part of the studies was the time-resolved diagnostic of an occurring plasma instability and the determination of the electron temperature via optical spectroscopy. The latter necessitated the detailed investigation of atomic excitation as well as the measurement of optical-emission cross sections.
A comparison of the results from both experiments i.e. the beam transport measurements at GSI and the diagnostic experiments performed at IAP concerning the plasma state, gave first indications of possible interaction processes between the nonneutral plasma and the ion beam.
Hanbury-Brown-Twiss interferometry within the UrQMD transport approach
- In this thesis, Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) interferometry is used together with the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) to analyse the time and space structure of heavy-ion collisions.
The first chapter after the introduction gives an overview of the different types of models used in the field of heavy-ion collisions and a introduction of the UrQMD model in more detail. The next chapter explains the basics of Hanbury-Brown-Twiss correlations, including azimuthally sensitive HBT (asHBT).
4. Charged Multiplicities from UrQMD
5. Formation time via HBT from pp collisions at LHC
6. HBT analysis of Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies
7. HBT scaling with particle multiplicity
8. Compressibility from event-by-event HBT
9. Tilt in non-central collisions
10. Shape analysis of strongly-interacting systems
11. Measuring a twisted emission geometry
This thesis covers the standard integrated HBT analyses, extracting the Pratt-Bertsch radii, at LHC energies. The analyses at these energies showed a too soft expansion in UrQMD probably related to the absence of a partonic phase in UrQMD. The most promising results in this thesis at these energies are the restriction of the formation time to a value smaller than 0.8 fm/c and furthermore, the results from the asHBT analyses. In simulations of non-central heavy-ion collisions at energies of Elab= 6, 8 and 30 AGeV the validity of the formulae to calculate the tilt angle via asHBT has been checked numerically, even for the case of non-Gaussian, flowing sources. On this basis has been developed and test in the course of this thesis that allows to measure a scale dependent tilt angle experimentally. The signal should be strongest at FAIR energies.
A kinetic theory for spin waves in yttrium-iron garnet
- Spin waves in yttrium-iron garnet has been the subject of research for decades. Recently the report of Bose-Einstein condensation at room temperature has brought these experiments back into focus. Due to the small mass of quasiparticles compared to atoms for example, the condensation temperature can be much higher. With spin-wave quasiparticles, so-called magnons, even room temperature can be reached by externally injecting magnons. But also possible applications in information technologies are of interest. Using excitations as carriers for information instead of charges delivers a much more efficient way of processing data. Basic logical operations have already been realized. Finally the wavelength of spin waves which can be decreased to nanoscale, gives the opportunity to further miniaturize devices for receiving signals for example in smartphones.
For all of these purposes the magnon system is driven far out of equilibrium. In order to get a better fundamental understanding, we concentrate in the main part of this thesis on the nonequilibrium aspect of magnon experiments and investigate their thermalization process. In this context we develop formalisms which are of general interest and which can be adopted to many different kinds of systems.
A milestone in describing gases out of equilibrium was the Boltzmann equation discovered by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1872. In this thesis extensions to the Boltzmann equation with improved approximations are derived. For the application to yttrium-iron garnet we describe the thermalization process after magnons were excited by an external microwave field.
First we consider the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena. A special property of thin films of yttrium-iron garnet is that the dispersion of magnons has its minimum at finite wave vectors which leads to an interesting behavior of the condensate. We investigate the spatial structure of the condensate using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and find that the magnons can not condensate only at the energy minimum but that also higher Fourier modes have to be occupied macroscopically. In principle this can lead to a localization on a lattice in real space.
Next we use functional renormalization group methods to go beyond the perturbation theory expressions in the Boltzmann equation. It is a difficult task to find a suitable cutoff scheme which fits to the constraints of nonequilibrium, namely causality and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem when approaching equilibrium. Therefore the cutoff scheme we developed for bosons in the context of our considerations is of general interest for the functional renormalization group. In certain approximations we obtain a system of differential equations which have a similar transition rate structure to the Boltzmann equation. We consider a model of two kinds of free bosons of which one type of boson acts as a thermal bath to the other one. Taking a suitable initial state we can use our formalism to describe the dynamics of magnons such that an enhanced occupation of the ground state is achieved. Numerical results are in good agreement with experimental data.
Finally we extend our model to consider also the pumping process and the decrease of the magnon particle number till thermal equilibrium is reached again. Additional terms which explicitly break the U(1)-symmetry make it necessary to also extend the theory from which a kinetic equation can be deduced. These extensions are complicated and we therefore restrict ourselves to perturbation theory only. Because of the weak interactions in yttrium-iron garnet this provides already good results.
Dynamical equilibration and transport coefficients of strongly interacting matter