Mass media in the process of transformation in Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic after the fall of communism
Angelika Wioletta Wyka-Podkowka
- Hallin and Mancini’s seminal work Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and
Politics has generated great interest and enthusiasm among media scholars to advance comparative
studies by applying the four dimensions to analyze media performance in different countries. Media
scholars agree that the four variables suggested by the two authors, i.e. the structure of media
markets, political parallelism, role of the state, and professionalization of journalism, provide a
good theoretical framework for the analysis of relationship between political and media system.
Their models for comparing media systems are based on a ‘most similar’ strategy,
analysing media and journalism only in stable Western democracies (i.e. Western European and
North American nations), and the purpose of the research presented in this paper was to develop
the model to include other parts of the world as well.
The most recent attempts to integrate East Central European media systems into the Hallin
and Mancini model, the conclusion being that the East Central European media share most
similarities with the Polarized Pluralist model. This conclusion follows not only Hallin and
Mancini, but also Splichal. The researcher in his earlier works argued that the changes in post-
Soviet media systems could be best explained by referring to the concept of Italianization - the
media are under strong state control, the degree of mass media partisanship is strong, low level of
journalistic professionalism, commercialization.
In fact, out of the three models only two (the Liberal and the Democratic Corporatist
model) are models in any strict sense, whereas the third - Polarized Pluralism - is better defined
as the lack of a model: the Liberal and Democratic Corporatist model are both built on a
consensus around core values, whereas the key feature of the Polarized Pluralism model is that
there is no consensus and no core values. De Albuquerque introduced other variables that also
would be highly relevant to the comparative analysis of media systems, but that have no place in
the Hallin & Mancini framework, the most important one being whether the political system is
presidential or parliamentary. For example, it has been demonstrated that media in presidential systems are more likely to focus on individual politicians and the administrative aspects of
government, as well as acting as an intermediary between different branches of government, than
are media in parliamentary systems.
Scholars dealing with the East Central Europe (and elsewhere) are too interested in fitting
their respective nations to one of the three models, rather than focusing on the variables and on the
comparative dimension. The scholars focus on the variables and on the comparative dimension: it
is strucking that their conclusions are precisely that a strict modeling approach (i.e. trying to fit
any given nation into the three-system model) is not enough if we want to understand media
system differences properly.
Hallin and Mancini (2004: 305) write that “The Democratic Corporatist Model, we suspect,
will have particularly strong relevance for the analysis of those parts of Eastern and Central
Europe that share much of the same historical development, like Poland, Hungary, the Czech
Republic, and the Baltic States”. At the same time, however, they suspect that scholars working on
the East Central European media will find much that is relevant in their analysis of the
The recent attempts integrate East Central European media systems into the Hallin and
Mancini model, the conclusion being that the East Central European media share most similarities
with the Polarized Pluralist model. This conclusion follows not only Hallin and Mancini, but also
Splichal. The researcher in his earlier works argued that the changes in post-Soviet media systems
could be best explaind by referring to the concept of Italianization - including the role of
clientelism, the strong role of the state, the role of the media as an instrument of political struggle,
and a low level of journalistic professionalism.
The Polarized Pluralist model all too often seems to be the default model – what is really
gained, analytically, by saying that post-Communist countries are all basically Polarized Pluralist
media system when they are different in many ways. This question needs further elaboration.
Instead of fitting the Italianization model into East Central Europe, scholars should start working on their own model, introducing other variables, that would allow them to investigate the
media in the region adequately.
Bräuchler, Birgit (ed.) (2009), Reconciling Indonesia. Grassroots Agency for Peace, London/ New York: Routledge, ISBN-13: 978-0415487047, 272 pages
Sharia and Egypt’s constitution: an Iraqi blueprint
- The constitutional debates that took place in the run-up to the formation of the current Iraqi constitution provide a blueprint for the questions Islamic parties must address if they are to be insiders to the process of consolidating democracy.
ProtoSociology : an international journal of interdisciplinary research. Nr. 29, 2012 ; China's Modernization II
Generation and secularisation in Germany : the succession of generations up to the youngest adult generation and the advancing process of secularisation
- When one considers the results of social scientific surveys, secularisation in Germany seems to be a more or less linear process of erosion of what is traditionally named religiosity. The percentage of citizens who affirm that they are “religious”, believe in God or otherworldly beings, hope for life after death or participate regularly in the praxis of a religious community has been – by and large – steadily declining for decades. This decline has occurred over the succeeding generations: The younger the generation, the fewer “religious” people in it. But the process of secularisation is apparent not only in this persistent quantitative shrinkage from generation to generation. Above all it also manifests itself – this is the thesis of the article – in the transformation of the habitus formations and contents of faith of the generations. The essence of ongoing secularisation naturally is reflected most clearly in its contemporary state of development which is represented in the youngest adult generation. Therefore the analysis of this generation is particularly interesting for the sociology of religion. But the article does not confine to analyze this generation. After indicating some basic premises of the sociology of generations and the notion of secularisation presupposed in this paper, the succession of generations in Germany is outlined hypothetically, from the so-called generation of ´68 to the youngest adult generation, concluding with some remarks about the progress of secularisation.
Anomalous monism and mental causality : on the debate of Donald Davidson’s philosophy of the mental
- The English version of the first chapter of Erwin Rogler and Gerhard Preyer: Materialismus, anomaler Monismus und mentale Kausalität. Zur gegenwärtigen Philosophie des Mentalen bei Donald Davidson und David Lewis (2001) »Anomaler Monismus und Mentale Kausalität. Ein Beitrag zur Debatte über Donald Davidsons Philosophie des Mentalen« is a contribution to the current debates on the philosophy of the mental and mental causality initiated from Donald Davidson's philosophy with his article »Mental Events« (1970). It is the intent of the English version to give a response to the controversy among American, British and Australian philosophers in the context of a global exchange of ideas on problems understanding the mental. Contents 1. Preliminary Remarks 2. The Critique of Property-Epiphenomenalism and Counterarguments (a) The Enlargement of Nomological Reasoning (b) The Counterfactual Analysis (c) Supervenient Causality 3. Are Mental Properties real or unreal (fictive)? Abstract Things and events are fundamental entities in Davidson's ontology. Less distinct is the ontological status of properties, especially of mental types. Despite of some eliminative allusions there are weighty reasons to understand Davidson's philosophy of mind as including intentional realism. With it, the question of mental causality arises. There are two striking solutions to this problem: the epiphenomenalism of mental properties and the downward causation of mental events. Davidson cannot accept either. He claims to justify the mental as supervenient causality in order to thus integrate it into physicalism (his version of monism). But his argument at best proves the explanatory, not the causal relevance of mental properties. For this and for other reasons, Davidson fails the aspired synthesis of a sufficiently strong physicalism and the autonomy of the mental; a project whose realization is anyhow hard to achieve.
Patriarchat, Patriarchalismus : I. 17. und 18. Jahrhundert
Eros and culture : gender theory in Simmel, Tönnies and Weber
Sociology and the diagnosis of the times or: the reflexivity of modernity
- The present essay is the revised version of a talk given at the meeting of the German Sociological Association (DGS) on 'Social Theory and Social Practice', which was held on 16-18 February 1989 in the Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies at the University of Bielefeld. The original German version of that talk was published in Jenseits der Utopie : Theoriekritik der Gegenwart / ed. by Stefan Müller-Doohm. - Frankfurt : Suhrkamp, 1991, S. 15-47: "Soziologie und Zeitdiagnose: oder: Die Moderne im Selbstbezug" s.a. http://publikationen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de/volltexte/2007/3906/
Soci(ologic)al theory between universialism and cultural relativism