CD69 is a TGF-β/1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 target gene in monocytes
Thea K. Wöbke
Andreas von Knethen
Bernd L. Sorg
- CD69 is a transmembrane lectin that can be expressed on most hematopoietic cells. In monocytes, it has been functionally linked to the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in which the leukotrienes, a class of highly potent inflammatory mediators, are produced. However, regarding CD69 gene expression and its regulatory mechanisms in monocytes, only scarce data are available. Here, we report that CD69 mRNA expression, analogous to that of 5-lipoxygenase, is induced by the physiologic stimuli transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) in monocytic cells. Comparison with T- and B-cell lines showed that the effect was specific for monocytes. CD69 expression levels were increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and kinetic analysis revealed a rapid onset of mRNA expression, indicating that CD69 is a primary TGF-β/1α,25(OH)2D3 target gene. PCR analysis of different regions of the CD69 mRNA revealed that de novo transcription was initiated and proximal and distal parts were induced concomitantly. In common with 5-lipoxygenase, no activation of 0.7 kb or ~2.3 kb promoter fragments by TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 could be observed in transient reporter assays for CD69. Analysis of mRNA stability using a transcription inhibitor and a 3′UTR reporter construct showed that TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 do not influence CD69 mRNA stability. Functional knockdown of Smad3 clearly demonstrated that upregulation of CD69 mRNA, in contrast to 5-LO, depends on Smad3. Comparative studies with different inhibitors for mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) revealed that MAPK signalling is involved in CD69 gene regulation, whereas 5-lipoxygenase gene expression was only partly affected. Mechanistically, we found evidence that CD69 gene upregulation depends on TAK1-mediated p38 activation. In summary, our data indicate that CD69 gene expression, conforming with 5-lipoxygenase, is regulated monocyte-specifically by the physiologic stimuli TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 on mRNA level, although different mechanisms account for the upregulation of each gene.
EGI user forum 2011 : book of abstracts
Simple method for sub-diffraction resolution imaging of cellular structures on standard confocal microscopes by three-photon absorption of quantum dots
- This study describes a simple technique that improves a recently developed 3D sub-diffraction imaging method based on three-photon absorption of commercially available quantum dots. The method combines imaging of biological samples via tri-exciton generation in quantum dots with deconvolution and spectral multiplexing, resulting in a novel approach for multi-color imaging of even thick biological samples at a 1.4 to 1.9-fold better spatial resolution. This approach is realized on a conventional confocal microscope equipped with standard continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate the potential of multi-color tri-exciton imaging of quantum dots combined with deconvolution on viral vesicles in lentivirally transduced cells as well as intermediate filaments in three-dimensional clusters of mouse-derived neural stem cells (neurospheres) and dense microtubuli arrays in myotubes formed by stacks of differentiated C2C12 myoblasts.
Humaira Masood Siddiqi
- The aromatic rings in the title compound, C13H8ClNO4, enclose a dihedral angle of 39.53 (3)°. The nitro group is almost coplanar with the ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 4.31 (1)°]. In the crystal, molecules are connected by C-H...O hydrogen bonds into chains running along . Key indicators: single-crystal X-ray study; T = 173 K; mean σ(C–C) = 0.002 A°; R factor = 0.044; wR factor = 0.105; data-to-parameter ratio = 18.9.
Multicolour fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography for structural genomics of membrane multiprotein complexes
- Many interesting and important membrane proteins are hetero-oligomeric. However, besides naturally abundant examples, the structures of relatively few such complexes are known. Partly, this is due to difficulties in expression, stoichiometric assembly, and in the evaluation of their stability prior to crystallization trials. Here we describe a new approach, which allows rapid assessment of protein complex quality, assembly and stoichiometry, simplifying the search for conditions conducive to long-term stability and crystallization. Multicolour fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography (MC-FSEC) is used to enable tracking of individual subunits through expression, solubilization and purification steps. We show how the method has been applied to the heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and demonstrate how it may be extended in order to analyse membrane multisubunit assemblies.
"Wir brauchen den Vergleich mit anderen Forschungseinrichtungen nicht zu scheuen"
Resonance Raman and FTIR spectroscopic characterization of the closed and open states of channelrhodopsin-1
Víctor A. Lórenz-Fonfría
- Channelrhodopsin-1 from Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) is a light-activated cation channel, which is a promising optogenetic tool. We show by resonance Raman spectroscopy and retinal extraction followed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) that the isomeric ratio of all-trans to 13-cis of solubilized channelrhodopsin-1 is with 70:30 identical to channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR2). Critical frequency shifts in the retinal vibrations are identified in the Raman spectrum upon transition to the open (conductive P2(380)) state. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra indicate different structures of the open states in the two channelrhodopsins as reflected by the amide I bands and the protonation pattern of acidic amino acids.
Habilitationsordnung der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fachbereiche der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main vom 4. Februar 1992 : genehmigt durch Beschluss des Präsidiums der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main am 19. November 2013
Isolation und Strukturaufklärung von marinen Naturstoffen aus Evertebraten der Nordsee, Arktis und Antarktis
- In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Sekundärmetabolite aus marinen Wirbellosen der Nordsee, arktischen und antarktischen Gewässern untersucht. Ausgehend von Untersuchungen zur marinen chemischen Ökologie von Haliclona viscosa und physiologischen Effekten auf die Kieme der Krabbe Carcinus maenas wurden verschiedene Alkaloide und Cholesterole isoliert (siehe Abbildung 25). Vier unbekannte Alkaloide konnten erstmalig aus Haliclona viscosa isoliert werden. Sie leiten sich von 3-Alkylpyridin-Alkaloiden ab, die für Schwämme der Gattung Haliclona charakteristisch sind. Die Strukturaufklärung erfolgte durch den Einsatz von NMRSpektroskopie und Massenspektrometrie. Die symmetrischen bzw. pseudo-symmetrischen Eigenschaften erschwerten im besonderen Maße die Strukturaufklärung. Die Isolation von Haliclamin C und D sowie Viscosalin ermöglichte es, daß für sie ökologische Funktionen nachgewiesen werden konnten [33, 34], die dem Schwamm Haliclona viscosa in seinem Habitat Vorteile im Kampf um das Überleben bringen. Viscosamin ist das erste natürlich vorkommende zyklische Trimer eines 3-Alkylpyridin-Alkaloids, daß aus einer marinen Umgebung stammt. Es schließt eine Lücke zwischen monomeren, dimeren und polymeren 3-Alkylpyridin-Alkaloiden. Aus dem bisher noch nicht chemisch untersuchten Borstenwurm Laetmonice producta, konnte Homarin isoliert werden [81-84]. Homarin zeigte einen bisher unbekannten physiologischen Effekt auf die Kieme eines potentiellen Räubers . Ob Homarin aufgrund seiner physiologischen Wirkung den Borstenwurm vor z.B. räuberischen Krebstieren schützen kann, muß noch mit weiteren Versuchen geklärt werden. Enthält 3 Art. aus versch. Zeitschr.: 1 Christian A. Volk and Matthias Köck: Viscosamine: The First Naturally Occuring Trimeric 3-Alkyl Pyridinium Alkaloid ; 2 Christian A. Volk, Heike Lippert, Ellen Lichte, and Matthias Köck: Two New Haliclamines from the Arctic Sponge Haliclona viscosa, European Journal of Organic Chemistry 2004, im Druck ; 3 Christian A. Volk and Matthias Köck: Viscosaline: New 3-Alkyl Pyridinium Alkaloid from the Artic Sponge Haliclona viscosa, Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 2004, im Druck
On the molecular basis of novel anti-inflammatory compounds and functional leukocyte responses
- Inflammation is a complex pathophysiological event that can be triggered by activation of a number of distinct activation pathways eventually leading to the release of pro-inflammatory molecules and enzymes. Among all cells involved in inflammatory processes, neutrophils, monocytes and platelets are of major relevance. Activation of leukocytes occurs via binding of agonists to distinct GPCRs leading to activation of G proteins and proximate signaling cascades. In short, GPCR activation by pro-inflammatory agonists such as fMLP, PAF or LTB4 leads to activation of G proteins that are associated with the receptor at the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane. G proteins consist of a Gα- and a Gβγ-subunit which are associated in the inactive state. In this state, G proteins bind GDP. Upon activation, GDP is replaced by GTP that results in the dissociation of the Gα- from the Gβγ-subunit. Both subunits are capable of activating distinct PLC-β isoenzymes that catalyze the turnover of PtdIns(4,5)P2 into the second messengers Ins(1,4,5)P3 and DAG. Every GPCR holds a distinct pattern of associated G proteins which preferentially activate distinct PLC-β isoenzymes. Ca2+ channels within the SR/ER-membrane function as specific receptors for Ins(1,4,5)P3. Ligation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 to this receptor causes a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores into the cytosol that is subsequently followed by the influx of Ca2+ e through channels in the plasma membrane. Ca2+ represents an important signaling molecule, involved in the regulation of cellular processes and enzymes that mediate inflammatory events such as ROS formation and the release of degradative enzymes. 5-LO and COXs are involved in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and catalyze the turnover of AA into LTs and PGs, respectively. Both enzymes play pivotal roles in the initiation and maintenance of allergic diseases and inflammatory processes. LTB4 is regarded as a potent chemotactic and chemokinetic substance, whereas the cysteinyl-LTs cause smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability. Therefore, 5-LO inhibitors are assumed to possess therapeutic potential for the treatment of diseases related to inflammation. Besides the intervention with 5-LO activity, inhibition of COX-activity is an effective way to suppress inflammatory reactions. The two COX isoenzymes, namely COX-1 and COX-2 show different patterns in terms of tissue expression and sensitivity towards inhibitors. COX-1 is supposed to be constantly expressed whereas COX-2 expression is upregulated at sites of inflammation. The extract of H. perforatum is commonly used for the treatment of mild to moderate depressive disorders, accompanied by a moderate profile of side effects. The extract´s efficacy as an antidepressant can be traced back to the content of the phloroglucinol hyperforin which represents the most abundant lipophilic constituent. However, in folk medicine hypericum extracts are additionally used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis or inflammatory skin diseases. In fact, it was shown that hypericum extracts and hyperforin possess anti-inflammatory potential. Hyperforin was described as a dual inhibitor of 5-LO and COX-1. The phloroglucinols MC and S-MC from M. communis significantly differ from the molecular structure of hyperforin. Hyperforin represents a monomeric prenylated derivative whereas MS and S-MC are non-prenylated oligomeric compounds. To date, the anti-inflammatory potential of SM and S-MC has not been investigated in detail. So far, solely antioxidant activity was attributed to MC and S-MC that indeed might qualify them as anti-inflammatory drugs. The phloroglucinols MC, S-MC and hyperforin are potent inhibitors of ROS formation and HLE release. However, any inhibitory potential of these compounds was only observed when cells were activated by GPCR agonists such as fMLP or PAF. In contrast, when cells were stimulated under circumvention of G protein-associated signaling cascades, the abovementioned inhibitors were not effective at all. In leukocytes, [Ca2+]i plays a pivotal role in signal transduction and regulation of the indicated pro-inflammatory cellular functions. We were able to show that MC, S-MC and hyperforin inhibited GPCR-mediated Ca2+ mobilization with approximately the same potency as the above-mentioned leukocyte responses. However, all of the indicated phloroglucinols were ineffective when cells were stimulated with ionomycin. Since ionomycin as well as GPCR agonists exert their effects by mobilizing Ca2+ i, it seems conceivable that MC, S-MC and hyperforin somehow interfere with G protein-associated signaling pathways. In order to investigate PLC as a potential target of hyperforin, the effects of hyperforin were compared to those of the broad spectrum PLC inhibitor U-73122. We found that both inhibitors acted in a comparable manner in terms of agonist-induced Ca2+ mobilization and in regard of the manipulation of basal Ca2+ levels in unstimulated cells. In this respect, significant differences between hyperforin and U-73122 were obvious for inhibition of total PLC activity in vitro. Thus, U-73122 blocked PLC activity whereas hyperforin was ineffective in this respect. This might indicate that only certain PLC isoenzymes are affected by hyperforin. Alternatively, other components within G protein-associated signaling pathways such as G proteins itself or the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor must be taken into account as putative targets of hyperforin. We were able to introduce MC and S-MC as novel dual inhibitors of 5-LO and COX-1. Interestingly, such a pattern was also described for hyperforin. MC and S-MC turned out to be direct inhibitors of 5-LO, based on the fact that they inhibit 5-LO not only in intact cells but also as purified enzyme in vitro. For MC and S-MC, great discrepancies were observed between the IC50 values concerning 5-LO inhibition and the concentrations that exert the antioxidative effects. It seems probable that 5-LO inhibition is not related to reduction of the active site iron as a result of the antioxidant activity of MC and S-MC but rather to direct interference with the 5-LO enzyme. The capability of MC and S-MC to suppress COX-1 activity seems not to be a unique effect of these phloroglucinols because for COX-1, the IBPC, present in both MC and S-MC, turned out to be the most active compound. ....