Characterization of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase and its heterologous production in Escherichia coli
- This work presents a biochemical, functional and structural characterization of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase obtained using both a native form (AAF1FO) and a heterologous form (EAF1FO) of this enzyme.
F1FO ATP synthases catalyze the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate driven by ion motive forces across the membrane and therefore play a key cellular function. Because of their central role in supporting life, F1FO ATP synthases are ubiquitous and have been remarkably conserved throughout evolution. For their biological importance, F1FO ATP synthases have been extensively studied for many decades and many of them were characterized from both a functional and a structural standpoint. However, important properties of ATP synthases – specifically properties pertaining to their membrane embedded subunits – have yet to be determined and no structures are available to date for the intact enzyme complex. Therefore, F1FO ATP synthases are still a major focus of research worldwide. Our research group had previously reported an initial characterization of AAF1FO and had indicated that this enzyme presents unique features, i.e. a bent central stalk and a putatively heterodimeric peripheral stalk. Based on such a characterization, this enzyme revealed promising for structural and functional studies on ATP synthases and became the focus of this doctoral thesis. Two different lines of research were followed in this work.
First, the characterization of AAF1FO was extended by bioinformatic, biochemical and enzymatic analyses. The work on AAF1FO led to the identification of a new detergent that maintains a higher homogeneity and integrity of the complex, namely the detergent trans-4-(trans-4’-propylcyclohexyl)cyclohexyl-α-D-maltoside (α-PCC). The characterization of AAF1FO in this new detergent showed that AAF1FO is a proton-dependent, not a sodium ion-dependent ATP synthase and that its ATP hydrolysis mechanism needs to be triggered and activated by high temperatures, possibly inducing a conformational switch in subunit γ. Moreover, this approach suggested that AAF1FO may present unusual features in its membrane subunits, i.e. short N-terminal segments in subunits a and c with implications for the membrane insertion mechanism of these subunits.
Investigating on these unique features of A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase could not be done using A. aeolicus cells, because these require a harsh and dangerous environment for growth and they are inaccessible to genetic manipulations. Therefore, a second approach was pursued, in which an expression system was created to produce the enzyme in the heterologous host E. coli. This second approach was experimentally challenging, because A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase is a 500-kDa multimeric membrane enzyme with a complicated and still not entirely determined stoichiometry and because its encoding genes are scattered throughout A. aeolicus genome, rather than being organized in one single operon. However, an artificial operon suitable for expression was created in this work and led to the successful production of an active and fully assembled form of Aquifex aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase. Such artificial operon was created using a stepwise approach, in which we expressed and studied first individual subunits, then subcomplexes, and finally the entire F1FO ATP synthase complex. We confirmed experimentally that subunits b1 and b2 form a heterodimeric subcomplex in the E. coli membranes, which is a unique case among ATP synthases of non-photosynthetic organisms. Moreover, we determined that the b1b2 subcomplex is sufficient to recruit the soluble F1 subcomplex to the membranes, without requiring the presence of the other membrane subunits a and c. The latter subunits can be produced in our expression system only when the whole ATP synthase is expressed, but not in isolation nor in the context of smaller FO subcomplexes. These observations led us to propose a novel mechanism for the assembly of ATP synthases, in which first the F1 subcomplex attaches to the membrane via subunit b1b2, and then cring and subunits a assemble to complete the FO subcomplex. Furthermore, we could purify the heterologous ATP synthase (EAF1FO) to homogeneity by chromatography and electro-elution. Enzymatic assays showed that the purified form of EAF1FO is as active as AAF1FO. Peptide mass fingerprinting showed that EAF1FO is composed of the same subunits as AAF1FO and all soluble and membrane subunits could be identified. Finally, single-particle electron microscopy analysis revealed that the structure of EAF1FO is identical to that of AAF1FO. Therefore, the EAF1FO expression system serves as a reliable platform for investigating on properties of AAF1FO.
Specifically, in this work, EAF1FO was used to study the membrane insertion mechanism of rotary subunit c. Subunits c possess different lengths and levels of hydrophobicity across species and by analyzing their N-terminal variability, four phylogenetic groups of subunits c were distinguished (groups 1 to 4). As a member of group 2, the subunit c from A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase is characterized by an N-terminal segment that functions as a signal peptide with SRP recognition features, a unique case for bacterial F1FO ATP synthases. By accurately designing mutants of EAF1FO, we determined that such a signal peptide is strictly necessary for membrane insertion of subunit c and we concluded that A. aeolicus subunit c inserts into E. coli membranes using a different pathway than E. coli subunit c. Such a property may be common to other ATP synthases from extremophilic organisms, which all cluster in the same phylogenetic group.
In conclusion, the successful production of the fully assembled and active F1FO ATP synthase from A. aeolicus in E. coli reported in this work provides a novel genetic system to study A. aeolicus F1FO ATP synthase. To a broader extent, it will also serve in the future as a solid reference for designing strategies aimed at producing large multi-subunit complexes with complicated stoichiometry.
Bispezifische transmembrane Antikörperfragmente zur Inhibierung von ErbB-Wachstumsfaktor-Rezeptoren
Nina Carola Angelika Müller
- Der epidermale Wachstumsfaktor-Rezeptor (EGFR) und das ErbB2 Molekül sind Mitglieder der ErbB-Rezeptortyrosinkinase-Familie. Die Bindung von Peptidliganden an die extrazelluläre Domäne (ECD) von EGFR führt zu einer Konformationsänderung, die den Dimerisierungs-kompetenten Zustand des Rezeptors stabilisiert und eine Homodimerisierung oder Heterodimerisierung mit anderen ErbB-Rezeptoren erlaubt. ErbB2 liegt dagegen ohne Ligandenbindung dauerhaft in einer Dimerisierungskompetenten Konformation vor. Die Rezeptordimerisierung stimuliert die intrazelluläre Kinaseaktivität, was zu einer Autophosphorylierung distinkter Tyrosine im C-terminalen Schwanz der Rezeptoren führt. Diese Phosphotyrosine dienen als Bindungsstellen unterschiedlicher intrazellulärer Substrate und Adaptorproteine, die Zellwachstums-, Migrations- und Überlebens-fördernde Signalkaskaden auslösen. Eine Über- oder Fehlfunktion dieser Rezeptoren wurde in vielen Karzinomen epithelialen Ursprungs sowie in Glioblastomen beschrieben und mit einem aggressiven Krankheitsverlauf in Verbindung gebracht.
Der therapeutische Antikörper Cetuximab inhibiert das Tumorwachstum, indem er an die ECD von EGFR bindet und dabei die Ligandenbindung und Rezeptoraktivierung unterbindet. Dieselben Eigenschaften weist das single chain fragment variable (scFv) 225 auf, das die gleiche Antigenbindungsdomäne besitzt. Ein weiteres scFv-Antikörperfragment, scFv(30), wurde in vorangegangenen Arbeiten der Gruppe aus einer scFv-Bibliothek isoliert und bindet als zytoplasmatisch stabil exprimierbares Molekül an die intrazelluläre Domäne (ICD) des EGFR.
Im ersten Teil dieser Arbeit wurde das bislang unbekannte Epitop des scFv(30) Antikörperfragments mittels Peptid-Spotting Experimenten bestimmt. Die Bindungsstelle des scFv(30) Proteins wurde dabei am C-terminalen Ende der EGFR Sequenz lokalisiert und umfasst die Aminosäuresequenz GIFKGSTAE (AS 1161-1169 des reifen EGFR Proteins).
Die Expression von Antikörperfragmenten als sogenannte Intrabodies in Tumorzellen stellt einen wirkungsvollen Ansatz zur selektiven Interferenz mit wichtigen physiologischen und pathophysiologischen Prozessen dar. Im zweiten Teil der vorgelegten Arbeit wurde das EGFR-ECD-spezifische Antikörperfragment scFv(225) über eine Transmembrandomäne und eine flexible Gelenkregion mit dem EGFR-ICD-spezifischen scFv(30) Molekül zu einem neuartigen bispezifischen Antikörper verbunden. Die konstitutive Expression dieses 225.TM.30 Intrabodies und der monospezifischen Variante 225.TM nach lentiviraler Transduktion von EGFR-überexprimierenden MDA MB468 und A431 Tumorzellen resultierte in einer substanziellen Reduktion der EGFR-Oberflächenexpression und einer Blockierung der Liganden-induzierten EGFR-Autophosphorylierung, begleitet von einer deutlichen Inhibition des Zellwachstums. Eine weitere Analyse der 225.TM.30-induzierten molekularen Prozesse in diesen Tumorzellen im Vergleich zu den beiden monospezifischen Varianten 225.TM und TM.30 erfolgte mittels eines Tetracyclin-induzierbaren Expressionssystems. Dazu wurden A431, MDA-MB468 und EGFR-negative MDA-MB453 Zellen zunächst mit retroviralen Vektorpartikeln transduziert, die für den optimierten reversen Tetracyclin-kontrollierten Transaktivator (M2) kodieren. Anschließend erfolgte die Tansduktion mit retroviralen transmembranen Antikörperkonstrukten, kontrolliert von einem Tetracyclin-induzierbaren Promoter (T6). Die Doxycyclin (Dox)-induzierte Expression von 225.TM.30 und 225.TM bestätigte die im konstitutiven Expressionssystem beobachteten Ergebnisse. TM.30-exprimierende Zellen zeigten dagegen keinen Unterschied in der Oberflächenexpression oder Aktivierbarkeit von EGFR zu parentalen Zellen, wiesen aber dennoch eine deutliche Inhibition des Wachstums auf. Konfokale Laserscanning Mikroskopie Studien zeigten eine Co-Lokalisation von 225.TM und EGFR hauptsächlich an der Zelloberfläche, während 225.TM.30 und TM.30 im endoplasmatischen Retikulum detektiert wurden und EGFR in diesem Kompartiment festhielten. Die TM.30/EGFR-Komplexe im ER könnten eine ER-Stress-Antwort auslösen und damit das reduzierte Wachstum TM.30-exprimierender Zellen erklären. Tatsächlich wurden in MDA MB468/M2/iTM.30 und A431/M2/iTM.30 Zellen erhöhte Proteindisulfidisomerase (PDI) und teilweise GRP78/BiP Proteinmengen detektiert, die auf eine ER-Stress-Antwort hindeuten. Das bispezifische 225.TM.30 Molekül vereinte die Eigenschaften der monospezifischen Antikörpervarianten. Es hielt wie TM.30 Anteile des EGFR im ER zurück und war wie 225.TM in der Lage, die EGFR-Oberflächenexpression zu reduzieren und die EGFR-Autophosphorylierung zu inhibieren.
Die Expression der drei transmembranen Antikörper in EGFR-negativen MDA-MB453/M2 Zellen hatte dagegen keinen Einfluss auf das Wachstum dieser Zellen, was die EGFR-Spezifität der vorgestellten Moleküle unterstreicht.
Im letzten Teil der vorgelegten Arbeit wurde die scFv(225) Domäne in 225.TM.30 gegen das ErbB2-ECD-spezifische scFv(FRP5) Molekül ausgetauscht, und somit ein ErbB2-ECD- und EGFR-ICD-spezifischer Intrabody generiert (5.TM.30). Nach der Dox-induzierten Expression des 5.TM.30 Moleküls in EGFR- und/oder ErbB2-exprimierenden Tumorzellen wurde die Funktionalität beider Bindungsdomänen verifiziert. Die 5.TM.30 Expression resultierte dabei in ErbB2-positiven Tumorzellen in einer verringerten Oberflächen- und Gesamtexpression von ErbB2 und in EGFR-positiven Zellen in einer Reduktion der EGFR-Gesamtproteinmenge. Dies lässt auf eine erhöhte, 5.TM.30-induzierte Degradation der beiden Rezeptoren schließen. Die Expression des 5.TM.30 Proteins führte zudem zu einer Inhibition des Wachstums EGFR- und/oder ErbB2-positiver Zellen. Weiterhin wurde auch in 5.TM.30-exprimierenden MDA-MB468/M2 Zellen, wie für 225.TM.30 und TM.30 beschrieben, eine Co-Lokalisation des transmembranen Antikörperfragments mit EGFR im ER gezeigt.
Die in dieser Arbeit vorgestellten Ergebnisse weisen erstmals die Funktionalität von membranverankerten mono- und bispezifischen Antikörpermolekülen als Intrabodies nach, und zeigen ihr Potenzial zur gerichteten Interferenz mit der Wachstumsfaktor-abhängigen Signaltransduktion. Durch den Austausch der extra- und intrazellulären Antikörperdomänen könnte diese Strategie ebenso zur Analyse oder Blockade weiterer Signalmoleküle und Signalkomplexe eingesetzt werden.
Insights into a lipid regulator by solid-state MAS NMR : kinetic and structure-functional studies on diacylglycerol kinase
Sandra Johanna Ullrich
- In this thesis the integral membrane protein diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) from E.coli is investigated with solid-state NMR. The aim is to gain an insight into the enzyme’s mechanism through integration of kinetic, structural and dynamic data. The biological function of DAGK is the transfer of the γ-phosphate group from Mg*ATP to diacylglycerol (DAG) building phosphatidic acid (PA) as port of the membrane-derived oligosaccharide cycle[31,34]. Surprisingly, DAGK does not share structural or sequential similarities with other kinases. Typical sequence motives found in other kinases, which catalyze phosphoryl transfer reactions, are not found. In its physiological form DAGK is a homo-trimer with nine transmembrane helices, three catalytic centers and a size of 39.6 kDa.
First, the set-up of a real-time 31P MAS NMR experiment is shown. This experiment allows measuring in real-time the simultaneous ATP hydrolysis in the aqueous phase and lipid substrate phos-phorylation in the membrane phase with atomic resolution under magic angle spinning. After fast transfer of the sample into the NMR spectrometer the enzymatic reaction is started with a temperature jump. This approach of real-time MAS NMR in a dual-phase system was demonstrated for the lipid substrate analogs dioleoyl- (DOG) and dibutyrylglycerol (DBG), with a C8 and C4 aliphatic chain, respectively. The combination of 31P direct and cross polarization functions as a dynamic filter. In the 31P direct polarized experiment nuclei in both phases are detected, while in the 31P cross polar-ized experiment, only nuclei in the membrane phase are detected. Rates for substrate turnover, i.e. degradation of γP-, βP, αP-ATP and build-up of βP-, αP-ADP, free phosphate as side reaction, and PA are obtained, which reveal a Michaelis-Menten behavior with regard to Mg*ATP and DBG. Here Mg*ATP and DBG follow a random-equilibrium model, where every substrate can bind indepen-dently from the other substrate. Analyses of the peak integrals from educts and products of the enzymatic reaction, revealed the stoichiometry of the reaction: 1.5 ATP molecules are used to phos-phorylate one DBG molecule. The excess of ATP is attributed to the basal ATPase activity. Further-more, experiments with ATPγS, usually regarded as a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, where carried out. Surprisingly, DAGK hydrolyzes ATPγS and also transfers the thio-phosphate group to the lipid acceptor DBG, which points to a certain degree of plasticity in the active center. A phosphorylated enzyme intermediate was not detected. These results suggest the building of a ternary complex of Mg*ATP, DBG and DAGK performing a direct-phosphoryl transfer reaction, without passing through a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate. Experiments with the transition state analog ortho-vanadate (Vi) showed a decoupling of the ATP hydrolysis activity from lipid substrate phosphorylation. This indicates a specific transfer site for the γ-phosphate group from ATP to DAG, which can be blocked by Vi.
A general disadvantage of NMR spectroscopy compared to other spectroscopic methods is its inherent low sensitivity. One possible starting point for the improvement of signal-to-noise per unit time is the reduction of the spin-lattice relaxation time of protons. Usually 95 % of the experi-mental time is required for the relaxation of the 1H to equilibrium. The addition of paramagnetic species can be used to reduce the 1H T1. In a comprehensive study four different paramagnetic agents were tested: Cu2+-EDTA, Cu2+-EDTA-tag, Gd3+-TTAHA and Gd3+-DOTA. The titration of these paramagnetic complexes showed the principle feasibility of this approach, but differences between the tested species exist. The most promising complex is Gd3+-DOTA which, at a concentration of 2 mM, causes a 10-time improvement of signal-to-noise ratio per unit time. This allowed measuring 2D 13C-13C correlation spectra of proteoliposomes in one tenth of the usual required experimental time (i.e. 10 hours vs. 4 days) with good signal-to-noise.
For the investigation of structural or dynamic changes in the protein upon substrate interaction with MAS NMR, the spectral properties CP efficiency and resolution of the DAGK in liposomes needed to be improved. The most critical step during sample preparation is the reconstitution of the membrane protein from detergent micelles into a membrane of synthetic lipids under detergent removal. For this procedure the important criteria are enzymatic activity, measured in a coupled ATPase assay, and homogeneity of the proteoliposomes, which was tested e.g. on a discontinuous sucrose step gradient. Therefore an extensive study was carried out, in which different detergents, lipids and lipid mixtures, techniques for detergent removal and different protein-to-lipid ratios were tested. A direct correlation between high ATPase activity and good resolution was not found. Moreover, active DAGK in a mixture of DMPC and cholesterol, which emulates the membrane features of a membrane containing DAG, showed the best CP efficiency and resolution.
The assignment of the protein backbone and amino acid side chains the first mandatory step towards the investigation of structural and dynamical features influencing and defining the enzymatic mechanism by MAS NMR. As the assignment procedure is very time consuming for a total protein, a special labeling scheme for DAGK was developed, which allows assigning most of the protein areas presumably involved in enzyme catalysis. The assignment of DAGK with solution NMR was not transferable to the MAS NMR spectra. Most important for the assignment process were the unique pairs, two consecutive amino acids which only appear once in the amino acid sequence. These unique pairs served as anchor points. Five different multinuclear MAS NMR experiments (DARR, NCO, NCA, NCACX, NCOCX) were required for the sequential assignment. It was possible to assign 35 % of the total amino acid sequence with one sample and 8 experiments acquired at 850 MHz. The secondary structure analysis showed subtle differences to the DAGK assignment with solution NMR, which can be attributed to the different environment in lipid bilayers and detergent micelles.
Data about structural and dynamical changes under substrate interaction can reveal details about the enzymatic mechanism. Therefore changes in chemical shift in 2D heteronuclear correlation experiments in the apo-state and under substrate saturated conditions with the substrates Mg*AMP-PNP, a non-hydrolysable ATP-analog, DOG, a mixture of Mg*AMP-PNP and DOG as well as inhibited by Vi were recorded. The most significant peak changes were observed at the interface membrane-cytoplasm as well as the the N-terminal amphipathic helix. The residues revealing chemical shift perturbations correlate with conserved residues or such residues, for which importance for catalysis and/or folding could be shown in mutation studies. Especially noticeable were the changes at the amino acids Asn 72, Lys 64, His 87, Tyr 86 and Asp 95.
Beside changes of the chemical shift, changes of line width or signal doubling were observable. These changes can point to a correlation with dynamic reorientations in the μs-ms time regime, which are most relevant for enzymatic processes. The protein backbone dynamics in the apo-state as well as saturated with the substrates or inhibited with Vi were investigated with a 15N-CODEX experiment, which is based on the reorientation of the CSA tensor upon dynamical changes. Specific effects of the different substrates or analogs on the protein backbone dynamic were revealed complementing the structural data and the chemical shift perturbation experiments.
Biophysical studies of lipid membranes by solid state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations
- Biological membranes separate the cell interior from the outside and have diverse functions from signal transduction, apoptosis to transportations of ions and small molecules in and out of the cell. Most of these functions are fulfilled by proteins incorporated in the membrane. However, lipids as the main component of membrane not only serve as structural element for bilayer formation but they are also directly involved e.g. signalling processes and bilayer properties are important to mediate protein interactions. To fully understand the role of lipids, it is necessary to develop a molecular understanding of how certain membrane components modify bulk bilayer structure and dynamics. Membranes are known to have many different motions in different conditions and time scales. Temperature, pH, water content and many other conditions change membrane dynamics in a high degree. In addition to this, time scales of motions in membranes vary from ns to ms range corresponding to fast motion and slow motion, respectively. Therefore, membranes are needed to be studied systematically by varying the conditions and using methods to investigate motions in various time scales separately. The aim of this study was therefore perform a combined solid-state NMR / molecular dynamics study on model membranes. Different substrates, such as potential drugs, polarizing agents and signaling lipids were incorporated into bilayers and their location within the membrane and their effect onto the membrane was probed. NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), pirinixic acid derivatives, ceramides and polarizing agents were the substrates for membranes in this study. There were several experimental methods that were applied in order to investigate effects of these substrates on membrane dynamics. Different kind of phospholipids including POPC, DMPC and DPPC were used. In addition to experimental work, with the information gathered from solid state NMR experiments molecular dynamics simulations were performed to obtain more information about the membranes at the molecular level. As a result, combination of solid-state NMR with molecular dynamics simulations provides very systematic way of investigating membrane dynamics in a large range of time scales.
Pirinixic acid derivatives were special interest of this study because of their activity on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) as an agonist as well as on enzymes of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (PGE2s) -1 and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) as dual inhibitor. Two potent pirinixic acid derivatives, 2-(4-chloro-6-(quinolin-6-ylamino)pyrimidin-2-ylthio)octanoic acid (compound 2) and 2-(4-chloro-6-(quinolin-6-ylamino)pyrimidin-2-ylthio)octanoate (compound 3), have been worked and their insertion depts were investigated by combining of solid state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations. Both experimental and theoretical results pointed out that compound 3 was inserted the phospholipid bilayer more deeply than 2. NSAIDs – lipid mixtures have been also studied here. It is known that consumption of NSAIDs as in mixture with lipids results much fewer side effects than consumption of the drugs alone. Thus, it is crucial to understand interactions of NSAIDs with lipids and investigate the possible complex formation of drugs with lipids. In this study, interactions of three widely used NSAIDs, ibuprofen, diclofenac and piroxicam, with DPPC were investigated by solid-state NMR. 1H and 31P NMR results depicted that ibuprofen and diclofenac had interactions with lipids, which is an indication of drug-lipid complex formation whereas piroxicam didn’t show any interactions with lipids suggesting that no complex formation occurred in the case of piroxicam. Ceramides are known to play key roles in many cell processes and many studies showed that the functions of ceramides are related with the ceramide effects on biological membranes. Therefore, in this study, influences of ceramides on biophysics of lipid bilayers were investigated by using various solid state NMR techniques and molecular dynamics simulations. Results from molecular dynamics simulations clearly showed that ceramide and lipids have strong interactions. More evidences about ceramide-lipid interactions were provided from 1H and 14N NMR results. In addition, it was indicated by both simulation and experimental methods that ceramide increased the rigidity of DMPC by increasing chain order parameters. BTbk is a biradical, which is used as polarizing agent for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments and found to be more efficient than other widely used polarizing agents such as TOTAPOL. Since it is a hydrophobic compound, which prefers to stay inside lipid bilayer it is important to investigate the location and orientation of bTbk along the bilayer in order to understand its enhancement profile in DNP measurements. In this study, both NMR relaxation time measurements and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that bTbk tends to stay more close to hydrophobic chain of lipids than the interfacial part of lipids at bilayer surface.
In the first part of this work, a brief introduction on lipid membranes as well as a theoretical summary on both methods of solid-state NMR and molecular dynamics simulations is given. Then, in the second part methodology is introduced for both solid-state NMR spectrometer and theoretical calculations. Afterwards, results of different membrane systems are discussed in the following parts for both solid state NMR and MD. Finally, in the last part, a summary and the conclusion of the overall results together with some future plans are explained.
CD69 is a TGF-β/1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 target gene in monocytes
Thea K. Wöbke
Andreas von Knethen
Bernd L. Sorg
- CD69 is a transmembrane lectin that can be expressed on most hematopoietic cells. In monocytes, it has been functionally linked to the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in which the leukotrienes, a class of highly potent inflammatory mediators, are produced. However, regarding CD69 gene expression and its regulatory mechanisms in monocytes, only scarce data are available. Here, we report that CD69 mRNA expression, analogous to that of 5-lipoxygenase, is induced by the physiologic stimuli transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) in monocytic cells. Comparison with T- and B-cell lines showed that the effect was specific for monocytes. CD69 expression levels were increased in a concentration-dependent manner, and kinetic analysis revealed a rapid onset of mRNA expression, indicating that CD69 is a primary TGF-β/1α,25(OH)2D3 target gene. PCR analysis of different regions of the CD69 mRNA revealed that de novo transcription was initiated and proximal and distal parts were induced concomitantly. In common with 5-lipoxygenase, no activation of 0.7 kb or ~2.3 kb promoter fragments by TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 could be observed in transient reporter assays for CD69. Analysis of mRNA stability using a transcription inhibitor and a 3′UTR reporter construct showed that TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 do not influence CD69 mRNA stability. Functional knockdown of Smad3 clearly demonstrated that upregulation of CD69 mRNA, in contrast to 5-LO, depends on Smad3. Comparative studies with different inhibitors for mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) revealed that MAPK signalling is involved in CD69 gene regulation, whereas 5-lipoxygenase gene expression was only partly affected. Mechanistically, we found evidence that CD69 gene upregulation depends on TAK1-mediated p38 activation. In summary, our data indicate that CD69 gene expression, conforming with 5-lipoxygenase, is regulated monocyte-specifically by the physiologic stimuli TGF-β and 1α,25(OH)2D3 on mRNA level, although different mechanisms account for the upregulation of each gene.
EGI user forum 2011 : book of abstracts
Simple method for sub-diffraction resolution imaging of cellular structures on standard confocal microscopes by three-photon absorption of quantum dots
- This study describes a simple technique that improves a recently developed 3D sub-diffraction imaging method based on three-photon absorption of commercially available quantum dots. The method combines imaging of biological samples via tri-exciton generation in quantum dots with deconvolution and spectral multiplexing, resulting in a novel approach for multi-color imaging of even thick biological samples at a 1.4 to 1.9-fold better spatial resolution. This approach is realized on a conventional confocal microscope equipped with standard continuous-wave lasers. We demonstrate the potential of multi-color tri-exciton imaging of quantum dots combined with deconvolution on viral vesicles in lentivirally transduced cells as well as intermediate filaments in three-dimensional clusters of mouse-derived neural stem cells (neurospheres) and dense microtubuli arrays in myotubes formed by stacks of differentiated C2C12 myoblasts.
Humaira Masood Siddiqi
- The aromatic rings in the title compound, C13H8ClNO4, enclose a dihedral angle of 39.53 (3)°. The nitro group is almost coplanar with the ring to which it is attached [dihedral angle = 4.31 (1)°]. In the crystal, molecules are connected by C-H...O hydrogen bonds into chains running along . Key indicators: single-crystal X-ray study; T = 173 K; mean σ(C–C) = 0.002 A°; R factor = 0.044; wR factor = 0.105; data-to-parameter ratio = 18.9.
Multicolour fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography for structural genomics of membrane multiprotein complexes
- Many interesting and important membrane proteins are hetero-oligomeric. However, besides naturally abundant examples, the structures of relatively few such complexes are known. Partly, this is due to difficulties in expression, stoichiometric assembly, and in the evaluation of their stability prior to crystallization trials. Here we describe a new approach, which allows rapid assessment of protein complex quality, assembly and stoichiometry, simplifying the search for conditions conducive to long-term stability and crystallization. Multicolour fluorescence size-exclusion chromatography (MC-FSEC) is used to enable tracking of individual subunits through expression, solubilization and purification steps. We show how the method has been applied to the heterodimeric transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and demonstrate how it may be extended in order to analyse membrane multisubunit assemblies.
"Wir brauchen den Vergleich mit anderen Forschungseinrichtungen nicht zu scheuen"