Arthur in the Tristan Tradition
- The bringing together of the two realms, that of Tristan and Isolde and that of Arthur, thus has a mutually corrosive effect. However, in the further course of the action Tristan and Isolde’s love regains some of its absoluteness: for instance Heinrich refrains from taking over the quarrel of lovers from Eilhart. He plays a double game, on the one hand reducing the absoluteness and self-sufficiency of love, on the other hand building it up again and thus preventing the establishment of a firm doctrine in the course of the narrative (…), as neither the Arthurian court nor the love of Tristan and Isolde provides an absolute norm. Heinrich wrote his romance for the Bohemian noble Raimund von Lichtenburg, and the account of the foundation of the Round Table and the self-directed activities of the knights have belonged (…). The initial Arthurian ideal has become a confirmatory ritual for an exclusive body of noblemen – that matches the spirit of the knightly societies.
The dual economy of medieval life
- The works of the author who called himself “der stricker“ (“the weaver“) are generally assigned to the reign of Emperor Frederick II (1212-1250). He wrote in a German of southern Franconian coloring, and his main area of activity is thought to have been the duchy of Austria.
Theory of language death und Language decay and contact-induced change : similarities and differences ; [the following two papers were presented at the International Symposium on Language Death in East Africa, Bad Homburg, January 8 - 12, 1990]
The Philippine Challenge to Universal Grammar
Nikolaus P. Himmelmann
- Grammatical relations – in particular the relation 'subject of' – and voice are of central concern to any theory of universal grammar. With respect to these phenomena the analysis of Tagalog (and the Philippine languages in general) has turned out to be particularly difficult and continues to be a matter of debate. What traditionally has been called passive voice in these languages […] appears to be so different from voice phenomena in the more familiar Indo-European languages that the term 'focus' was introduced in the late 1950s to underscore its 'exceptional' nature [...]. Furthermore, […] an inflationary use has been made of the term 'ergative' in the last decade; it can thus no longer be assumed that it has an unequivocal and specific meaning in typologizing languages, apart from the technical definition it might be given within a particular framework. But if the Philippine 'focus' constructions are neither passive nor ergative, how else can they be analysed? [...] In this paper a ease will be made for the claim that 'focus' marking should be analysed in terms of orientation, a concept used […] for capturing the difference between English (and, more generally, Indo-European) orientated nominalisations such as 'employ-er' or 'employ-ee', and unorientated nominalisations such as 'employ-ing'. This approach implies that 'focus' marking is derivational rather than inflectional as often presumed in the literature. This is to say that what is typologically conspicuous in Tagalog is not the 'focus' phenomenon per se, since this is very similar to orientated nominalisations in many other languages, but rather the very prominent use of orientated formations (i.e., derivational morphology) in basic clause structure.
Grammaticalization and Grammar
Nikolaus P. Himmelmann
Towards a Typological Classification of Modern Greek
- In the area of the Modern Greek verb, phenomena which consistently appear are headmarking, many potential slots before and/or after the verb root, noun and adverb incorporation, addition of adverbial elements by means of affixes, a large inventory of bound morphemes, verbal words as minimal sentences, etc. These features relate Modern Greek to polysynthesis. The main bulk of this paper is dedicated to the comparison of affixal and incorporation patterns between Modern Greek and the polysynthetic languages Abkhaz, Cayuga, Chukchi, Mohawk, and Nahuatl. Ultimately, a typological outlook for Modern Greek is proposed.
Perspectives : 2011, September/October ; Bilingual Education in a Global World
From Language Garden to Sustainable Languaging: Bilingual Education in a Global World
Ofelia García, Graduate Center, City University of New York 5 ; Language Lost & Found: A Family’s Full Circle : Mary Curtis 10 ; Language Variation from a Bilingual Perspective : Miriam Eisenstein Ebsworth, New York University, Steinhardt 17 ; Letter from the President 4 ; Contributing to Perspectives - Guidelines for Writers 2.
Predation on meadowbirds in The Netherlands – results of a four-year study
- Meadowbird populations in The Netherlands are under great pressure. Recently, predation is named increasingly
often as one of the key factors in contributing to the declines. A four-year research project (2001-2005) aimed to
collect (as yet mostly nonexisting) data to provide a factual basis for this discussion. A country-wide inventory based
on data for wader nests found by volunteers who mark nests for their protection from grazing/mowing indicated that
above-average predation losses are found predominantly in the half-open landscapes of northern and eastern Netherlands,
but also locally in the low-lying open grasslands which are the key areas for meadowbirds. Nest predation has
increased in recent years, but the same is true for agricultural losses, at least in areas where no nest-protection takes
At a local scale, predation losses vary greatly from area to area and from year to year. Temperature loggers in nest
showed that diurnal and nocturnal predators contribute equally in total predation losses up to 50%, but higher predation
losses are mainly caused by nocturnal predators. As many as 10 animal species were identified as nest predators
on nests under surveillance with video cameras. Chick survival, investigated using radiotelemetry, was very low. About
60-80% were lost by predation, 5-15% by agricultural activities and 10-15% to all kind of other losses. At least 15
predator species were implied, with an apparently larger share taken by birds (notably Buzzard (16%) and Grey Heron
(7-18%)) than mammals, with one exception: stoat (16%). Of the most-discussed predator species, Carrion Crows were
W. Teunissen et al. Osnabrücker Naturwiss. Mitt. 32 2006
remarkably rarely involved in both nest and chick predation, while Red Foxes take a large toll of clutches in some areas,
but not in others.
Of all losses during the reproductive cycle about 75% and 60% was due to predation in Lapwing and Black-tailed
Godwit respectively. Predation on chicks by birds had the largest effect on total breeding success, but at the same time
elimination of this loss factor (if at all possible) alone would not be sufficient to establish a self-sustaining population.
Predation seems to have become a factor of importance in some areas, in combination with already existing other
losses. Our findings suggest that solutions to predation problems probably have to be found in locally/regionally targeted,
specific action on multiple fronts rather than countrywide measures.
Some considerations and thoughts on the pragmatic classification of apomictic Rubus taxa
- Based on his studies of the genus Rubus in the Czech Republic, the author describes classification of brambles from Rubus subgen. Rubus in Europe, its recent history, present state, and current problems. In general, the author follows the adherents of "Weberian batology" which in the last 25 years has assumed European responsibility for attempting to ciassify that particular genus. The thesis that not every bramble plant can be inciuded in the ciassification is accepted. The objective reasons for taxonomic difficulties within Rubus subgen. Rubus are connected with special features of taxogenesis of its members, especially with incomplete apomixis, frequent hybridization, splitting of the progeny into different morphotypes, resexualization, transitory existence of segregants, etc. The progress of the evolution of a new taxon in the given taxonomic group can be ranked: individual bush - local type - regional species - species with an extensive distribution area.
Hamburg's warehouse district in Martin tom Dieck's "hundert Ansichten der Speicherstadt"
Martin de la Iglesia