Arthur in the Tristan Tradition
- The bringing together of the two realms, that of Tristan and Isolde and that of Arthur, thus has a mutually corrosive effect. However, in the further course of the action Tristan and Isolde’s love regains some of its absoluteness: for instance Heinrich refrains from taking over the quarrel of lovers from Eilhart. He plays a double game, on the one hand reducing the absoluteness and self-sufficiency of love, on the other hand building it up again and thus preventing the establishment of a firm doctrine in the course of the narrative (…), as neither the Arthurian court nor the love of Tristan and Isolde provides an absolute norm. Heinrich wrote his romance for the Bohemian noble Raimund von Lichtenburg, and the account of the foundation of the Round Table and the self-directed activities of the knights have belonged (…). The initial Arthurian ideal has become a confirmatory ritual for an exclusive body of noblemen – that matches the spirit of the knightly societies.
The dual economy of medieval life
- The works of the author who called himself “der stricker“ (“the weaver“) are generally assigned to the reign of Emperor Frederick II (1212-1250). He wrote in a German of southern Franconian coloring, and his main area of activity is thought to have been the duchy of Austria.
Verbal Noun or Verbal Adjective? The Case of the Latin Gerundive and Gerund
- It is the aim of this paper to present and elaborate a new solution to the old syntactic problems connected with the Latin gerundive and gerund, two verbal categories which have been interpreted variously either as adjective (or participle) or noun (or infinitive). These questions have been much discussed for quite a number of years […] but for the most part from a philological or purely diachronic point of view. All these linguists try to explain the peculiarities of these categories and their syntax by showing that the gerund is historically prior to the gerundive. [...] It is our thesis […] that in order to arrive at a unified account of gerundive and gerund we do not have to go back to prehistoric times. Even for the classical language gerund and gerundive represent the same category, in the sense that the gerund can be shown to be a special case of the gerundive. Additional evidence from a parallel construction in Hindi is adduced to make the Latin facts more plausible. It is only in the post-classical language that certain tendencies which had shown up already in Old Latin poetry become stronger and finally lead to a reanalysis of the gerundive and a split into two distinct syntactic constructions. The propositional meaning of the gerundive in its attributive use is explained with reference to a conflict between syntactic and cognitive principles. Special constructions which are the effects of such conflicts can be found in other parts of grammar. Languages differ with respect to the degree of syntacticization (or conventionalization) of these special constructions.
Transitivity Alternations of the Anticausative Type
- This paper is concerned with anticausative verbs (or verb-forms), or shortly, anticausatives. [...] [C]ausative/non-causative pairs with a marked non-causative are quite frequent in the languages of the world. However, so far they have not received sufficient attention in general and typological linguistics, a fact which is also manifested in the absence of a generally recognized term for this phenomenon […]. This paper therefore deals with the most important properties of anticausatives (particularly semantic conditions on them), their relationship to other areas of grammar as well as their historical development in different languages. The grammatical domain of transitivity, valence and voice, where the anticausative belongs, takes up a central position in grammar and consequently the present discussion should be of considerable interest to general comparative (or typological) linguists.
Theory of language death und Language decay and contact-induced change : similarities and differences ; [the following two papers were presented at the International Symposium on Language Death in East Africa, Bad Homburg, January 8 - 12, 1990]
The Philippine Challenge to Universal Grammar
Nikolaus P. Himmelmann
- Grammatical relations – in particular the relation 'subject of' – and voice are of central concern to any theory of universal grammar. With respect to these phenomena the analysis of Tagalog (and the Philippine languages in general) has turned out to be particularly difficult and continues to be a matter of debate. What traditionally has been called passive voice in these languages […] appears to be so different from voice phenomena in the more familiar Indo-European languages that the term 'focus' was introduced in the late 1950s to underscore its 'exceptional' nature [...]. Furthermore, […] an inflationary use has been made of the term 'ergative' in the last decade; it can thus no longer be assumed that it has an unequivocal and specific meaning in typologizing languages, apart from the technical definition it might be given within a particular framework. But if the Philippine 'focus' constructions are neither passive nor ergative, how else can they be analysed? [...] In this paper a ease will be made for the claim that 'focus' marking should be analysed in terms of orientation, a concept used […] for capturing the difference between English (and, more generally, Indo-European) orientated nominalisations such as 'employ-er' or 'employ-ee', and unorientated nominalisations such as 'employ-ing'. This approach implies that 'focus' marking is derivational rather than inflectional as often presumed in the literature. This is to say that what is typologically conspicuous in Tagalog is not the 'focus' phenomenon per se, since this is very similar to orientated nominalisations in many other languages, but rather the very prominent use of orientated formations (i.e., derivational morphology) in basic clause structure.
Grammaticalization and Grammar
Nikolaus P. Himmelmann
Towards a Typological Classification of Modern Greek
- In the area of the Modern Greek verb, phenomena which consistently appear are headmarking, many potential slots before and/or after the verb root, noun and adverb incorporation, addition of adverbial elements by means of affixes, a large inventory of bound morphemes, verbal words as minimal sentences, etc. These features relate Modern Greek to polysynthesis. The main bulk of this paper is dedicated to the comparison of affixal and incorporation patterns between Modern Greek and the polysynthetic languages Abkhaz, Cayuga, Chukchi, Mohawk, and Nahuatl. Ultimately, a typological outlook for Modern Greek is proposed.
Perspectives : 2011, September/October ; Bilingual Education in a Global World
From Language Garden to Sustainable Languaging: Bilingual Education in a Global World
Ofelia García, Graduate Center, City University of New York 5 ; Language Lost & Found: A Family’s Full Circle : Mary Curtis 10 ; Language Variation from a Bilingual Perspective : Miriam Eisenstein Ebsworth, New York University, Steinhardt 17 ; Letter from the President 4 ; Contributing to Perspectives - Guidelines for Writers 2.
An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras
Jaqueline Y. Miller
Deborah L. Matthews
Andrew D. Warren
M. Alma Solis
Donald J. Harvey
Thomas C. Emmel
Charles V. , Jr. Covell
- A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department
of Atlantida of northern Honduras, was initiated in 2009 to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist
of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 lists), as well as the first comprehensive list of
Honduran moths. Our updated list includes 550 species of Papilionoidea, 311 Hesperioidea, and 1,441 moth