Snoqualmia, a new polydesmid milliped genus from the northwestern United States, with a description of two new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae)
William A. Shear
- Snoqualmia, new genus, is described for two species of polydesmid millipeds from the northwestern
United States: Snoqualmia snoqualmie, new species, from Washington State, and S. idaho, new species,
from Idaho. Males of S. idaho possess unusually complex gonopods, perhaps the most complex to be found in the Order
Polydesmida. Snoqualmia is placed in context with other polydesmid genera known from North America. The
polydesmid fauna of North America is discussed, as well as characters of the gonopods of the family.
Millipeds from the eastern Dakotas and western Minnesota, USA, with an account of Pseudopolydesmus serratus (Say, 1821) (Polydesmida: Polydesmidae); first published records from six states and the District of Columbia
Rowland M. Shelley
Bruce A. Snyder
- The diplopod orders Callipodida and Polydesmida, and their respective families Abacionidae and
Xystodesmidae, are initially recorded from South Dakota as is Polydesmidae from North Dakota. Other new records of
indigenous taxa include Abacion Rafinesque, 1820/A. texense (Loomis, 1937) and Pleuroloma/P. flavipes, both by
Rafinesque, 1820, from South Dakota, and Pseudopolydesmus Attems, 1898/P. serratus (Say, 1821) from Alabama,
Connecticut, Delaware, New Hampshire, North Dakota, South Carolina, and the District of Columbia. New records of
Aniulus garius Chamberlin, 1912, A. (Hakiulus) d. diversifrons (Wood, 1867), and Oriulus venustus (Wood, 1864)
(Julida: Parajulidae) are provided for western Minnesota and/or eastern North Dakota. Published records from these
states are summarized, and the introduced taxa, Julidae/Cylindroiulus Verhoeff, 1894/C. caeruleocinctus (Wood, 1864)
and Paradoxosomatidae/Oxidus Cook, 1911/O. gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847), are newly recorded from the Dakotas. The
distribution of P. serratus, which extends from Maine to South Carolina and the Florida panhandle, west to Texas, and
north to Fargo, North Dakota is described and discussed. This distribution exhibits a prominent southeastern lacuna
which we hypothesize suggests replacement by younger, more successful species, as postulated for a similar distributional
gap in Scytonotus granulatus (Say, 1821).
Predation on meadowbirds in The Netherlands – results of a four-year study
- Meadowbird populations in The Netherlands are under great pressure. Recently, predation is named increasingly
often as one of the key factors in contributing to the declines. A four-year research project (2001-2005) aimed to
collect (as yet mostly nonexisting) data to provide a factual basis for this discussion. A country-wide inventory based
on data for wader nests found by volunteers who mark nests for their protection from grazing/mowing indicated that
above-average predation losses are found predominantly in the half-open landscapes of northern and eastern Netherlands,
but also locally in the low-lying open grasslands which are the key areas for meadowbirds. Nest predation has
increased in recent years, but the same is true for agricultural losses, at least in areas where no nest-protection takes
At a local scale, predation losses vary greatly from area to area and from year to year. Temperature loggers in nest
showed that diurnal and nocturnal predators contribute equally in total predation losses up to 50%, but higher predation
losses are mainly caused by nocturnal predators. As many as 10 animal species were identified as nest predators
on nests under surveillance with video cameras. Chick survival, investigated using radiotelemetry, was very low. About
60-80% were lost by predation, 5-15% by agricultural activities and 10-15% to all kind of other losses. At least 15
predator species were implied, with an apparently larger share taken by birds (notably Buzzard (16%) and Grey Heron
(7-18%)) than mammals, with one exception: stoat (16%). Of the most-discussed predator species, Carrion Crows were
W. Teunissen et al. Osnabrücker Naturwiss. Mitt. 32 2006
remarkably rarely involved in both nest and chick predation, while Red Foxes take a large toll of clutches in some areas,
but not in others.
Of all losses during the reproductive cycle about 75% and 60% was due to predation in Lapwing and Black-tailed
Godwit respectively. Predation on chicks by birds had the largest effect on total breeding success, but at the same time
elimination of this loss factor (if at all possible) alone would not be sufficient to establish a self-sustaining population.
Predation seems to have become a factor of importance in some areas, in combination with already existing other
losses. Our findings suggest that solutions to predation problems probably have to be found in locally/regionally targeted,
specific action on multiple fronts rather than countrywide measures.
Some considerations and thoughts on the pragmatic classification of apomictic Rubus taxa
- Based on his studies of the genus Rubus in the Czech Republic, the author describes classification of brambles from Rubus subgen. Rubus in Europe, its recent history, present state, and current problems. In general, the author follows the adherents of "Weberian batology" which in the last 25 years has assumed European responsibility for attempting to ciassify that particular genus. The thesis that not every bramble plant can be inciuded in the ciassification is accepted. The objective reasons for taxonomic difficulties within Rubus subgen. Rubus are connected with special features of taxogenesis of its members, especially with incomplete apomixis, frequent hybridization, splitting of the progeny into different morphotypes, resexualization, transitory existence of segregants, etc. The progress of the evolution of a new taxon in the given taxonomic group can be ranked: individual bush - local type - regional species - species with an extensive distribution area.