The 10 most recently published documents
Occurrence, distribution and behavior of hydrophilic ethers in the aquatic environment
- The objective of the present doctoral thesis was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and behaviour of six hydrophilic ethers: ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), 1,4-dioxane, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (monoglyme), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme), triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (triglyme), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme) in surface-, waste-, ground- and drinking water samples. Solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to analyze the six hydrophilic ethers. Altogether more than 150 surface water samples, almost 100 of each groundwater and wastewater samples, and 10 raw and drinking water samples were analyzed during the research project.
Initially, the method was validated in order to simultaneously determine the analytes of interest in various aquatic environments. A solid phase extraction method that uses coconut charcoal (Resprep® activated coconut charcoal, Restek) or carbon molecular sieve material (SupelcleanTM Envi-CarbTM Plus, Supelco) for analyte absorption were found suitable for determination of ETBE, 1,4-dioxane, and glymes in surface-, drinking-, ground- and wastewater samples. Precision and accuracy of both methods was demonstrated for all analytes of interest. The recovery of target compounds from the ultrapure water spiked at 1.0 µg L−1 was between 86.8 % and 98.2 %, with relative standard deviation below 6 %. The samples spiked at 10.0 µg L−1 gave slightly higher recovery of 90.6 % to 112.2 % with a relative standard deviation below 3.4 % for each analyte. Detection and quantification limits in ultrapure water and surface waters were furthermore established. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) in ultrapure water ranged between 0.024 µg L−1 to 0.057 µg L−1 using Restek cartridges, and 0.030 µg L−1 to 0.069 µg L−1 using Supelco cartridges. In the surface water samples the calculated LOQ was 0.032 µg L−1 to 0.067µg L−1 using coconut charcoal material and 0.032 µg L−1 to 0.052 µg L−1 using the carbon molecular sieve material. Moreover, stability of the unpreserved and preserved water samples as well as the extracts was determined. Preservation of samples with sodium bisulfate (at 1 gram per Liter) resulted in much better stability of the ethers in water samples. Subsequently, 27 samples obtained from seven surface water bodies in Germany (Rivers Rhine, Lippe, Main, Oder, Rur, Schwarzbach and Wesel-Datteln Canal) were analyzed for the six hydrophilic ethers. ETBE was present in only two surface waters (Rhine River and Wesel-Datteln Canal) with concentrations close to the LOQ (up to 0.065 µg L−1). 1,4-Dioxane was detected in all of the water samples at concentrations reaching 1.93 µg L–1. Monoglyme was identified only in the Main and Rhine Rivers at the maximum concentration of 0.114 µg L–1 and 0.427 µg L–1, respectively. Very high concentrations (up to 1.73 µg L−1) of diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme were detected in the samples from the Oder River. These glymes were also detected in the Rhine River; however the concentrations did not exceed 0.200 µg L–1. Furthermore, tetraglyme was detected in the Main River at an average concentration of 0.409 µg L–1 (n = 6) and in one sample from the Rur River at 0.192 µg L–1.
Four sampling campaigns were conducted at the Oderbruch polder between October 2009 and May 2012, in order to study the behavior of the hydrophilic ethers and organophosphates during riverbank filtration and in the anoxic aquifer. Moreover the suitability of these target compounds was assessed for their use as groundwater organic tracers. At the time of each sampling campaign, concentrations of triglyme and tetraglyme in the Oder River were between 20–185 ng L–1 (n = 4) and 273¬–1576 ng L–1 (n = 4). Monoglyme, diglyme, and 1,4-dioxane were analyzed only during the two last sampling campaigns. At that time, the concentration of diglyme in Oder River was 65¬–94 ng L-1 (n = 2) and 1,4-dioxane 1610¬–3290 ng L–1 (n = 2). In the drainage ditch, following bank filtration, concentrations of ethers ranged between 1090 ng L–1 and 1467 ng L–1 for 1,4-dioxane, 23¬ng L–1 and 41 ng L–1 for diglyme, 37 ng L–1 and 149 ng L–1 for triglyme, and 496 ng L–1 and 1403 ng L–1 for tetraglyme. In the anoxic aquifer, 1,4-dioxane showed the greatest persistence during the groundwater passage. At the distance of 1150 m from the river and an estimated groundwater age of 41.9 years, a concentration above 200 ng L−1 was detected. A positive correlation was found for the inorganic tracer chloride (Cl−) with 1,4-dioxane and tetraglyme. Similarities in the behavior of Cl− and the organic compound suggested that 1,4-dioxane and tetraglyme are controlled by the same hydraulic process and therefore can be used as additional tracers to study the dynamics of the groundwater system. These results show that high concentrations of ethers are present in the surface water and are not removed during bank filtration processes. Moreover, the hydrophilic ethers persist in the anoxic aquifer and little or no degradation is expected, supporting, their possible application as organic tracers.
A separate sampling project was conducted for 1,4-dioxane that focused primarily on its fate in the aquatic environment. This study provided missing information on the extent of water pollution with 1,4-dioxane is Germany. Numerous waste-, surface-, ground- and drinking water samples were collected in order to determine the persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L−1 to 834 ± 480 ng L−1, whereas the average effluents concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L−1 and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L−1. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in one of the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the river Main, Rhine, and Oder was also examined. Concentrations reaching 2,200 ng L−1 in the Oder River, and 860 ng L−1 in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average load during the sampling was estimated to be 6.5 kg d−1 in the Main, 34.1 kg d−1 in the Oder, and 134.5 kg d−1 in the Rhine River. In all of the sampled rivers, concentrations of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the mouth of the river and were found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. In order to determine if 1,4-dioxane can reach drinking water supplies, samples from a Rhine River bank filtration site and potable water from two drinking water production facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane in the raw water and finished potable water. The raw water (following bank filtration) contained 650 ng L−1 to 670 ng L−1 of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the finished drinking water fell only to 600 ng L−1 and 490 ng L−1, respectively.
During the final project, investigations of the source identification of high glyme concentrations in the Oder River were carried out. During four sampling campaigns between January, 2012 and April, 2013, 50 samples from the Oder River in the Oderbruch region and Poland were collected. During the first two samplings in the Oderbruch polder, glymes were detected at concentration reaching 0.07 µg L-1 (diglyme), 0.54 µg L−1 (triglyme) and 1.73 µg L−1 (tetraglyme) in the Oder River. The extensive sampling campaign of the Oder River (about 500 km) in Poland helped to identify the area of possible glyme entry into the river. During that sampling the maximum concentrations of triglyme and tetraglyme were 0.46 µg L−1 and 2.21 µg L−1, respectively. A closer investigation of the identified area of pollution, helped to determine the possible sources of glymes in the Oder River. Hence, the final sampling focused on the Kaczawa River, a left tributary of the Oder River and Czarna Woda, a left tributary of Kaczawa River. Moreover, samples from an industrial wastewater treatment plant were collected. Samples from Czarna Woda stream and Kaczawa River contained even higher concentrations of diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme, reaching 5.18 µg L−1, 12.87 µg L−1 and 80.81 µg L−1, respectively. Finally, three water samples from a wastewater treatment plant receiving influents from a copper smelter were analyzed. Diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme were present at an average concentration of 569 µg L−1, 4300 µg L−1, and 65900 µg L−1, respectively in the wastewater. Further research helped to identify the source of the glymes in the wastewater. The gas desulfurization process – Solinox implemented in the nearby copper smelter uses glymes as physical absorption medium for sulfur dioxide.
Results of this doctoral research provide important information about the occurrence, distribution, and behavior of hydrophilic ethers: 1,4-dioxane, monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme in the aquatic environment. A method capable of analyzing a wide range of ether compounds: from a volatile ETBE to a high molecular weight tetraglyme was validated. 1,4-Dioxane and tetraglyme were found to be applicable as organic tracers, since they are not easily attenuated during bank filtration and the anoxic groundwater passage. The extent of water pollution with 1,4-dioxane was shown in waste-, surface-, ground-, and drinking waters. One source of extremely high concentrations of 1,4-dioxane in a municipal sewage treatment plant applying postanoxic denitrification was identified, however more information is needed on the entry of 1,4-dioxane into surface waters. Moreover, 1,4-dioxane was present in drinking water samples from river bank filtration, which demonstrates its persistence in the aquatic environment and its low degradation potential during bank filtration and subsequent water treatment. Furthermore, this was the first study that focused primarily on identifying sources of glymes in surface waters. Glymes find a widespread use in industrial sectors, hence establishing their origin in the surface water is difficult (as with 1,4-dioxane). In this work, a gas desulphurization process was identified to be a dominating source of glyme pollution in the Oder River.
Large-scale parallelized learning of nonlinear sparse coding models
- The human brain is an unparalleled system: Through millions of years of evolution and during a lifespan of learning, our brains have developed remarkable abilities for dealing with incoming sensory data, extracting structure and useful information, and finally drawing the conclusions that result in the actions we take. Understanding the principles behind this machinery and building artificial systems that mimic at least some of these capabilities is a long standing goal in both the scientific and the engineering communities. While this goal still seems unreachable, we have seen tremendous progress when it comes to training data-driven algorithms on vast amounts of training data, e.g. to learn an optimal data model and its parameters in order to accomplish some task. Such algorithms are now omnipresent: they are part of recommender systems, they perform speech recognition and generally build the foundation for many semi-autonomous systems. They start to be integral part of many technical systems modern technical societies rely on for their everyday functioning. Many of these algorithms were originally inspired by biological systems or act as models for sensory data processing in mammalian brains. The response properties of a certain population of neurons in the first stages of the mammalian visual pathway, for example, can be modeled by algorithms such as Sparse Coding (SC), Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or Factor Analysis (FA). These well established learning algorithms typically assume linear interactions between the variables of the model. Most often these relationships are expressed in the form of a matrix-vector products between a matrix with learned dictionary-elements (basis vectors as column vectors) and the latent variables of these models. While on the one hand this linear interaction can sometimes be justified by the physical process for which the machine learning model is proposed, it is on the other hand often chosen just because of its mathematical and practical convenience. From an optimal coding point of view though, one would generally expect that the ideal model closely reflect the core interactions of the system it is modeling. In vision for example, one of the dominant processes giving rise to our sensory percepts are occlusions. Occluding objects are omnipresent in visual scenes and it would not be surprising if the mammalian visual system would be optimized to process occluding structures in the visual data stream. Yet, the established mathematical models of the first stages of the visual processing path (like, e.g., SC, ICA or FA) all assume linear interactions between the active image components. In this thesis we will discuss new models that aim to approximate the effects of occluding components by assuming nonlinear interactions between their activated dictionary elements. We will present learning algorithms that infer optimal parameters for these models given data. In the experiments, we will validate the algorithms on artificial ground truth data and demonstrate their ability to recover the correct model parameters. We will show that the predictions made by these nonlinear models correspond better to the experimental data measured in-vivo than the predictions made by the established linear models. Furthermore, we systematically explore and compare a large space of plausible combinations of hyperparameters and preprocessing schemes in order to eliminate any effects of artefacts on the observed results. Training nonlinear sparse coding models is computationally more demanding than training linear models. In order to perform the numerical experiments described in this thesis we developed a software framework that facilitates the implementation of massive parallel expectation maximization (EM) based learning algorithms. This infrastructure was used for all experiments described in here, as well as by collaborators in projects we will not discuss. Some of the experiments required more than 1017 floating point operations and were run on a computer cluster running on up to 5000 CPU Cores in parallel. Our parallel framework enabled these experiments to be performed.
Sportbezogene Klassenfahrten als Medium der sozialen Integration : eine empirische Untersuchung am Beispiel einer Skifahrt in der Jahrgangsstufe 7
- Es wird allgemein vermutet, dass Klassenfahrten bei den Schülern nachhaltige Veränderungen bewirken können und nur wenige empirische Befunde belegen die Wirksamkeit von Klassenfahrten. Diese defizitäre Forschungslage aufgreifend, beschäftigt sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit der sozial-integrativen Wirkung einer sportbezogenen Klassenfahrt (Skifahrt) auf empirischer Grundlage.
Mit Hilfe der Desintegrationstheorie von Anhut & Heitmeyer (2000) lässt sich das Konstrukt „Integration“ in allgemeinerer Form über das antinomische Begriffspaar „Anerkennung vs. Ablehnung“ operationalisieren, wobei zwischen positionaler, moralischer und emotionaler Anerkennung bzw. Ablehnung unterschieden werden kann. Neben individuellen Merkmalen erfolgt die Vergabe und Verweigerung von Anerkennung über kollektive Merkmale, die auf Zugehörigkeit zu einer Gruppe beruht. Im pädagogischen Kontext der Schulklasse ist daher von besonderem Interesse, wie sich die Anerkennungsverhältnisse zwischen Gruppen verändern, denen besondere Potenziale für heterogenitätsbedingte Ablehnung zugeschrieben wird (vgl. Gerecke, 2010). Hypothetisch sind dies Mädchen „vs.“ Jungen, Jugendliche mit „vs.“ Jugendliche ohne Migrationshintergrund und bezüglich Klassenfahrten die Gruppe der Schüler, die nicht teilnehmen konnten „vs.“ der Gruppe derer, die teilgenommen haben. Auf dieser Grundlage beschäftigt sich die vorliegende Arbeit mit den Effekten sportbezogenen Klassenfahrten auf die soziale Integration operationalisiert in Anerkennungsverhältnissen.
Mittels eines soziometrischen Wahlverfahrens wurden die Anerkennungs- und Ablehnungsverhältnisse von vier Schulklassen (N=95) zu drei Messzeitpunkten (Eingangs-, Ausgangs- und Behaltenstest nach sechs Wochen) computergestützt erhoben.
Die Betrachtung der Gesamtgruppe zeigt eine Steigerung der positiven Wahlen (eta²=0,210) bei einer gleichzeitigen Reduktion der negativen Wahlen (eta²=0,167). Diese Entwicklung ist über Post-hoc-Einzelvergleiche auf eine signifikante Veränderung innerhalb des Treatmentzeitraumes (ET AT) zurückzuführen. Das Intervall AT-BT nach Abschluss der Klassenfahrt ist nicht signifikant, so dass auf eine zeitliche Stabilität der Ergebnisse geschlossen werden kann. Allerdings sind große Unterschiede zwischen den einzelnen Klassen festzustellen, die nicht teilweise nicht mit dem Gesamtergebnis übereinstimmen. In der differenzierten Betrachtung der heterogenitätsbedingten Unterschiede ist in erster Linie ein Geschlechtereffekt zu erkennen. Insbesondere die positiven und negativen Wahlen zwischen Schülern verschiedenen Geschlechts verändern sich signifikant. Aber auch hier zeigen sie die bereits dargestellten klassenspezifischen Differenzen.
Während der Teilnahmestatus keinen Einfluss auf die Vergabe von negativen und positiven Wahlen besitzt, beeinflusst der Migrationsstatus hingegen die positiven Wahlen signifikant.
Mit Blick auf die theoretischen Grundlagen dieser Arbeit kann der Anstieg der positiven Wahlen als Zuwachs von Anerkennung und der Rückgang negativer Wahlen als eine Reduktion von Ablehnung interpretiert werden, wobei sich kein einheitliches Bild auf Klassenebene ergibt.
Anhut, R. & Heitmeyer, W. (2000). Desintegration, Konflikt und Ethnisierung. Eine Problemanalyse und theoretische Rahmenkonzeption. In W. Heitmeyer (Hrsg.), Bedrohte Stadtgesellschaft. Soziale Desintegrationsprozesse und ethnisch-kulturelle Konfliktkonstellationen (S. 17–73). Weinheim: Juventa-Verlag.
Gerecke, P. (2010). Heterogenitätsbedingte Unterschiede zwischen Ingroup- und Outgroup-Anerkennung bzw. -Ablehnung im Sportunterricht. Eine empirische Studie zum integrativen Einfluss des Kooperativen Lernens. Dissertation. Frankfurt am Main: Johann-Wolfgang Goethe Universität.
A taxonomic review of the genus Asterostegus (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea), with the description of a new species
- A revision of the genus Asterostegus Mortensen, 1933 (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea: Euryalidae) is based on seven specimens, including the holotype of Asterostegus maini McKnight, 2003. A new species, Asterostegus sabineae sp. nov., is described from off Reunion Island and two other species, A. tuberculatus Mortensen, 1933 and A. maini, are redescribed. A tabular key to the three species of the genus Asterostegus is provided. Some terminology of the taxonomy of euryalid ophiuroids
A catalogue of the types of Diapriinae (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) at the Natural History Museum, London
David G. Notton
- The types of nominal species of Diapriinae in the collection of the Natural History Museum, London, are catalogued. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Diapria peraffinis Ashmead, 1896; D. smithii Ashmead, 1896; Galesus bipunctatus Ashmead,1894; G. (G.) foersteri var. nigricornis Kieffer, 1911; G. sexpunctatus Ashmead, 1893; G. walkeri Kieffer, 1907; Idiotypa nigriceps Kieffer, 1909; I. nigriceps Kieffer, 1911; I. pallida Ashmead, 1893; I. pallida Ashmead in Riley, Ashmead & Howard, 1894; Paramesius angustipennis Kieffer, 1911; P. cameroni Kieffer, 1911; Phaenopria cameroni Kieffer, 1911; P. halterata Kieffer, 1911; P. magniclavata Ashmead, 1896; Tropidopsis clavata Ashmead, 1893; T. clavata Ashmead in Riley, Ashmead & Howard, 1894. New combinations are proposed: Aneuropria bifurcata comb. nov. for Mantara bifurcata Dodd, 1920; Basalys quadridens comb. nov. for Microgalesus quadridens Kieffer, 1912; Coptera cratocerus comb. nov. for Galesus cratocerus Cameron, 1912; Coptera sexpunctata comb. nov. for Galesus sexpunctatus Ashmead, 1893; Doliopria magniclavata comb. nov. for Phaenopria magniclavata Ashmead, 1896; Spilomicrus aterrimus comb. nov. for Hoplopria aterrima Dodd,
1920; Spilomicrus campbellanus comb. nov. for Antarctopria campbellana Yoshimoto, 1964; Spilomicrus coelopae comb. nov. for Antarctopria coelopae Early, 1978; Spilomicrus diomedeae comb. nov. for Antarctopria diomedeae Early, 1978; Spilomicrus helosciomyzae comb. nov. for Malvina helosciomyzae Early & Horning, 1978; Spilomicrus insulae comb. nov. for Malvina insulae Early, 1980; Spilomicrus latigaster comb. nov. for Antarctopria latigaster Brues in Tillyard, 1920; Spilomicrus punctatus comb. nov. for Malvina punctata Cameron, 1889; Spilomicrus rekohua comb. nov. for Antarctopria rekohua Early, 1978; Trichopria bouceki comb. nov. for Oxypria bouceki Masner, 1959; Trichopria nigriceps comb. nov. for Tropidopria nigriceps Ashmead in Riley, Ashmead & Howard, 1894; Trichopria nigriceps comb. nov. for Xyalopria nigriceps Kieffer, 1907; Trichopria spinosiceps comb. nov. for Acidopria spinosiceps Dodd, 1920; Trichopria walkeri comb. nov. for Diapria walkeri Dalla Torre, 1890. New replacement names are proposed: Coptera mosselensis nom. nov. for C. nigricornis Nixon, 1930 preocc.; Coptera pijiguaorum nom. nov. for C. sexpunctata Montilla & García, 2008 preocc.; Spilomicrus kozlovi nom. nov. for S. punctatus Kozlov, 1978 preocc.; Trichopria fluminis nom. nov. for T. nigriceps (Kieffer, 1907) preocc.; T. thermarum nom. nov. for T. nigriceps (Kieffer, 1913) preocc. New specific synonyms are proposed: Basalys cursitans (Kieffer, 1911) = B. pedisequa (Kieffer, 1911) syn. nov. (the former removed from synonymy with B. parvus Thomson, 1858); B. iphicla Nixon, 1980 = B. macroptera (Kieffer, 1911) syn. nov.; Coptera bipunctata (Ashmead in Riley, Ashmead & Howard, 1894) = C. sexpunctata (Ashmead, 1893) syn. nov.; Idiotypa nigriceps Kieffer, 1911 = I. nigriceps Kieffer, 1909 syn. nov.; I. pallida Ashmead in Riley, Ashmead & Howard, 1894 = I. pallida Ashmead, 1893 syn. nov.; Psilus nigricornis (Kieffer, 1911) = P. fuscipennis (Curtis, 1831) syn. nov.; P. walkeri (Kieffer, 1907) = P. fuscipennis (Curtis, 1831) syn. nov.; T. bouceki (Masner, 1959) = T. conotoma (Kieffer, 1911) syn. nov.; Trichopria halterata (Kieffer, 1911) = T. halterata (Kieffer, 1909) syn. nov. New generic synonyms are proposed: Antarctopria Brues in Tillyard, 1920 = Spilomicrus Westwood, 1832 syn. nov.; Malvina Cameron, 1889 = Spilomicrus Westwood, 1832 syn. nov.; Mantara Dodd, 1920 = Aneuropria Kieffer, 1905 syn. nov.; Microgalesus Kieffer, 1912 = Basalys Westwood, 1833 syn. nov.; Xyalopria Kieffer, 1907 = Trichopria Ashmead, 1893 syn. nov. (Xyalopria is removed from synonymy with Megaplastopria Ashmead, 1903). A brief account of some aspects of the history of these types is given.
New Baltic amber leafhoppers representing the oldest Aphrodinae
and Megophthalminae (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae)
Christopher H. Dietrich
Ana Clara Gonçalves
- Three fossil leafhopper inclusions from Eocene Baltic amber, representing three new extinct genera and species, are described and illustrated. Eomegophthalmus lithuaniensis gen. et sp. nov. is tentatively placed in Megophthalminae, although it may represent the stem group from which Megophthalminae, Ulopinae, and Membracidae arose. Xestocephalites balticus gen. et sp. nov. and Brevaphrodella nigra gen. et sp. nov. are placed in Aphrodinae: Xestocephalini based on the structure of the head, leg chaetotaxy, and male genital capsule. These new genera and species represent the oldest known representatives of their respective subfamilies and the latter is the oldest known brachypterous adult leafhopper.
Insecta Mundi, Volume 1 (1985/86)
Updated checklist of marine fishes (Chordata: Craniata) from Portugal
and the proposed extension of the Portuguese continental shelf
Filipe O. Costa
- The study of the Portuguese marine ichthyofauna has a long historical tradition, rooted back in the 18th Century. Here we present an annotated checklist of the marine fishes from Portuguese waters, including the area encompassed by the proposed extension of the Portuguese continental shelf and the Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ). The list is based on historical literature records and taxon occurrence data obtained from natural history collections, together with new revisions and occurrences. It comprises a total of 1191 species, distributed among 3 superclasses, 4 classes, 42 orders, 212 families and 617 genera. If considering only the EEZ and present territorial waters, this list represents an increase of 230 species (27.8%) and of 238 species (29.0%), when compared to the information available in FishBase (2012) and in the last checklist of marine and estuarine fishes of Portugal (1993), respectively. The order Perciformes shows the highest diversity, with 54 families, 162 genera and 299 species. Stomiidae (80 species), Myctophidae (71 species) and Macrouridae (37 species) are the richest families. From the listed species, 734 are present off mainland Portugal, 857 off the Azores and 766 off Madeira. Within the limits of the examined area, three species are reported for the first time in mainland Portugal and twenty-nine records are identified as doubtful. A total of 133 species have been recorded from the extended Portuguese continental shelf (2 off mainland Portugal, 117 off the Azores and 14 off Madeira), two of which are common to the Azores and Madeira extensions. Biogeographically, the Atlantic group is the most important (548 species – 46.01%), followed by the Lusitanian group (256 species – 21.49%), the African group (71 species – 5.96%), the Boreal group (34 species – 2.85%), the Mediterranean group (31 species – 2.60%), the Macaronesian group (21 species – 1.76%), the Atlantic/African group (19 species – 1.60%) and the Mediterranean/African and the Arctic groups, each with only 1 species (0.08%). Regarding the preferences for vertical habitat, the demersal fishes are the most important group (305 species – 25.61%), followed by the mesopelagic group (228 species – 19.14%), the bathypelagic group (164 species – 13.77%), the benthopelagic group (147 species – 12.34%), the bathydemersal group (115 species – 9.66%), the reef-associated group (88 species – 7.39%), the pelagic group (74 European Journal of Taxonomy 73: 1-73 (2014) 2 species – 6.21%), the epipelagic group (58 species – 4.87%) and 1 species (0.08%) of the benthic group. The oceanic habitat is the best represented group comprising 446 species (37.45%), followed by the shelf group (199 species – 16.71%), the slope group (164 species – 13.77%), the inner shelf group (89 species – 7.47%), the coastal group (70 species – 5.88%), the outer shelf group (29 species – 2.43%) and the oceanic/shelf group (7 species – 0.59%).
An inquiline deep-water bryozoan/amphipod association
from New Zealand, including the description of
a new genus and species of Chevaliidae
- For the first time Amphipoda have been discovered living in Bryozoa. A new genus and species of the amphipod family Chevaliidae, Bryoconversor tutus gen. et sp. nov. is described from New Zealand at depths of 530–1500 m. The species lives in an inquiline relationship with the cheilostome bryozoan Onchoporoides moseleyi (Calwelliidae), inhabiting an abfrontal basal coelom of the bryozoan beneath the membranous ectocyst (cuticularized epithelium) that conceals and protects the amphipods. The colony is strengthened along all edges by a unique intracoelomic rod of calcium carbonate that is formed within the marginal kenozooids of the colony. The potential benefits and costs to the bryozoan are discussed.
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