## Technical report Frank / Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Fachbereich Informatik und Mathematik, Institut für Informatik

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- Lambda-Kalkül (18)
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- 24 [v.2]
- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice: context lemma and correctness of transformations (2006)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb that is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a single-step rewriting system that defines a (nondeterministic) normal order reduction. This strategy can be made fair by adding resources for bookkeeping. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into any program context their termination behaviour is the same, where we use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We show that we can drop the fairness condition for equational reasoning, since the valid equations w.r.t. normal order reduction are the same as for fair normal order reduction. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations, in particular, a context lemma for may- as well as mustconvergence is proved, which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations preserve contextual equivalence.We also prove a standardisation theorem for fair normal order reduction. The structure of the ordering <=c a is also analysed: Ω is not a least element, and <=c already implies contextual equivalence w.r.t. may-convergence.

- 24
- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice: context lemma and correctness of transformations (2006)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb, which is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a normal order reduction. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into an arbitrary program context their termination behaviour is the same. We use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations. We provide a context lemma for may- as well as must- convergence which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations keep contextual equivalence. In contrast to other approaches our syntax as well as semantics does not make use of a heap for sharing expressions. Instead we represent these expressions explicitely via letrec-bindings.

- 24 [v.3]
- A call-by-need lambda-calculus with locally bottom-avoiding choice: context lemma and correctness of transformations (2008)
- We present a higher-order call-by-need lambda calculus enriched with constructors, case-expressions, recursive letrec-expressions, a seq-operator for sequential evaluation and a non-deterministic operator amb that is locally bottom-avoiding. We use a small-step operational semantics in form of a single-step rewriting system that defines a (nondeterministic) normal order reduction. This strategy can be made fair by adding resources for bookkeeping. As equational theory we use contextual equivalence, i.e. terms are equal if plugged into any program context their termination behaviour is the same, where we use a combination of may- as well as must-convergence, which is appropriate for non-deterministic computations. We show that we can drop the fairness condition for equational reasoning, since the valid equations w.r.t. normal order reduction are the same as for fair normal order reduction. We evolve different proof tools for proving correctness of program transformations, in particular, a context lemma for may- as well as mustconvergence is proved, which restricts the number of contexts that need to be examined for proving contextual equivalence. In combination with so-called complete sets of commuting and forking diagrams we show that all the deterministic reduction rules and also some additional transformations preserve contextual equivalence.We also prove a standardisation theorem for fair normal order reduction. The structure of the ordering <=c a is also analysed: Ω is not a least element, and <=c already implies contextual equivalence w.r.t. may-convergence.

- 20
- A complete proof of the safety of Nöcker's strictness analysis (2005)
- This paper proves correctness of Nöcker's method of strictness analysis, implemented in the Clean compiler, which is an effective way for strictness analysis in lazy functional languages based on their operational semantics. We improve upon the work of Clark, Hankin and Hunt did on the correctness of the abstract reduction rules. Our method fully considers the cycle detection rules, which are the main strength of Nöcker's strictness analysis. Our algorithm SAL is a reformulation of Nöcker's strictness analysis algorithm in a higher-order call-by-need lambda-calculus with case, constructors, letrec, and seq, extended by set constants like Top or Inf, denoting sets of expressions. It is also possible to define new set constants by recursive equations with a greatest fixpoint semantics. The operational semantics is a small-step semantics. Equality of expressions is defined by a contextual semantics that observes termination of expressions. Basically, SAL is a non-termination checker. The proof of its correctness and hence of Nöcker's strictness analysis is based mainly on an exact analysis of the lengths of normal order reduction sequences. The main measure being the number of 'essential' reductions in a normal order reduction sequence. Our tools and results provide new insights into call-by-need lambda-calculi, the role of sharing in functional programming languages, and into strictness analysis in general. The correctness result provides a foundation for Nöcker's strictness analysis in Clean, and also for its use in Haskell.

- 44
- A contextual semantics for concurrent Haskell with futures (2011)
- In this paper we analyze the semantics of a higher-order functional language with concurrent threads, monadic IO and synchronizing variables as in Concurrent Haskell. To assure declarativeness of concurrent programming we extend the language by implicit, monadic, and concurrent futures. As semantic model we introduce and analyze the process calculus CHF, which represents a typed core language of Concurrent Haskell extended by concurrent futures. Evaluation in CHF is defined by a small-step reduction relation. Using contextual equivalence based on may- and should-convergence as program equivalence, we show that various transformations preserve program equivalence. We establish a context lemma easing those correctness proofs. An important result is that call-by-need and call-by-name evaluation are equivalent in CHF, since they induce the same program equivalence. Finally we show that the monad laws hold in CHF under mild restrictions on Haskell’s seq-operator, which for instance justifies the use of the do-notation.

- 12
- A decision algorithm for stratified context unification (1999)
- Context unification is a variant of second-order unification and also a generalization of string unification. Currently it is not known whether context uni cation is decidable. An expressive fragment of context unification is stratified context unification. Recently, it turned out that stratified context unification and one-step rewrite constraints are equivalent. This paper contains a description of a decision algorithm SCU for stratified context unification together with a proof of its correctness, which shows decidability of stratified context unification as well as of satisfiability of one-step rewrite constraints.

- 32
- A finite simulation method in a non-deterministic call-by-need calculus with letrec, constructors and case (2008)
- The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus' semantics is based on a small-step rewrite semantics and on may-convergence. The cyclic nature of letrec bindings, as well as non-determinism, makes known approaches to prove that simulation implies contextual equivalence, such as Howe's proof technique, inapplicable in this setting. The basic technique for the simulation as well as the correctness proof is called pre-evaluation, which computes a set of answers for every closed expression. If simulation succeeds in finite computation depth, then it is guaranteed to show contextual preorder of expressions.

- 32 [v.2]
- A finite simulation method in a non-deterministic call-by-need calculus with letrec, constructors and case (2009)
- The paper proposes a variation of simulation for checking and proving contextual equivalence in a non-deterministic call-by-need lambda-calculus with constructors, case, seq, and a letrec with cyclic dependencies. It also proposes a novel method to prove its correctness. The calculus’ semantics is based on a small-step rewrite semantics and on may-convergence. The cyclic nature of letrec bindings, as well as nondeterminism, makes known approaches to prove that simulation implies contextual equivalence, such as Howe’s proof technique, inapplicable in this setting. The basic technique for the simulation as well as the correctness proof is called pre-evaluation, which computes a set of answers for every closed expression. If simulation succeeds in finite computation depth, then it is guaranteed to show contextual preorder of expressions.

- 7
- A partial rehabilitation of side-effecting I/O : non-determinism in non-strict functional languages (1996)
- We investigate the extension of non-strict functional languages like Haskell or Clean by a non-deterministic interaction with the external world. Using call-by-need and a natural semantics which describes the reduction of graphs, this can be done such that the Church-Rosser Theorems 1 and 2 hold. Our operational semantics is a base to recognise which particular equivalencies are preserved by program transformations. The amount of sequentialisation may be smaller than that enforced by other approaches and the programming style is closer to the common one of side-effecting programming. However, not all program transformations used by an optimising compiler for Haskell remain correct in all contexts. Our result can be interpreted as a possibility to extend current I/O-mechanism by non-deterministic deterministic memoryless function calls. For example, this permits a call to a random number generator. Adding memoryless function calls to monadic I/O is possible and has a potential to extend the Haskell I/O-system.

- 42
- A termination proof of reduction in a simply typed calculus with constructors (2010)
- The well-known proof of termination of reduction in simply typed calculi is adapted to a monomorphically typed lambda-calculus with case and constructors and recursive data types. The proof differs at several places from the standard proof. Perhaps it is useful and can be extended also to more complex calculi.