## Conference Proceeding

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- Machine-learning-based vs. manually designed approaches to anaphor resolution: the best of two worlds (2002)
- In the last years, much effort went into the design of robust anaphor resolution algorithms. Many algorithms are based on antecedent filtering and preference strategies that are manually designed. Along a different line of research, corpus-based approaches have been investigated that employ machine-learning techniques for deriving strategies automatically. Since the knowledge-engineering effort for designing and optimizing the strategies is reduced, the latter approaches are considered particularly attractive. Since, however, the hand-coding of robust antecedent filtering strategies such as syntactic disjoint reference and agreement in person, number, and gender constitutes a once-for-all effort, the question arises whether at all they should be derived automatically. In this paper, it is investigated what might be gained by combining the best of two worlds: designing the universally valid antecedent filtering strategies manually, in a once-for-all fashion, and deriving the (potentially genre-specific) antecedent selection strategies automatically by applying machine-learning techniques. An anaphor resolution system ROSANA-ML, which follows this paradigm, is designed and implemented. Through a series of formal evaluations, it is shown that, while exhibiting additional advantages, ROSANAML reaches a performance level that compares with the performance of its manually designed ancestor ROSANA.

- Lower bounds for multi-pass processing of multiple data streams (2009)
- This paper gives a brief overview of computation models for data stream processing, and it introduces a new model for multi-pass processing of multiple streams, the so-called mp2s-automata. Two algorithms for solving the set disjointness problem with these automata are presented. The main technical contribution of this paper is the proof of a lower bound on the size of memory and the number of heads that are required for solving the set disjointness problem with mp2s-automata.

- Ambiguity and communication (2009)
- The ambiguity of a nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) N for input size n is the maximal number of accepting computations of N for an input of size n. For all k, r 2 N we construct languages Lr,k which can be recognized by NFA's with size k poly(r) and ambiguity O(nk), but Lr,k has only NFA's with exponential size, if ambiguity o(nk) is required. In particular, a hierarchy for polynomial ambiguity is obtained, solving a long standing open problem (Ravikumar and Ibarra, 1989, Leung, 1998).

- Simulation in the call-by-need lambda-calculus with letrec (2010)
- This paper shows the equivalence of applicative similarity and contextual approximation, and hence also of bisimilarity and contextual equivalence, in the deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus with letrec. Bisimilarity simplifies equivalence proofs in the calculus and opens a way for more convenient correctness proofs for program transformations. Although this property may be a natural one to expect, to the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first one providing a proof. The proof technique is to transfer the contextual approximation into Abramsky’s lazy lambda calculus by a fully abstract and surjective translation. This also shows that the natural embedding of Abramsky’s lazy lambda calculus into the call-by-need lambda calculus with letrec is an isomorphism between the respective term-models. We show that the equivalence property proven in this paper transfers to a call-by-need letrec calculus developed by Ariola and Felleisen. 1998 ACM Subject Classification: F.4.2, F.3.2, F.3.3, F.4.1. Key words and phrases: semantics, contextual equivalence, bisimulation, lambda calculus, call-by-need, letrec.

- Regular tree languages, cardinality predicates, and addition-invariant FO (2012)
- This paper considers the logic FOcard, i.e., first-order logic with cardinality predicates that can specify the size of a structure modulo some number. We study the expressive power of FOcard on the class of languages of ranked, finite, labelled trees with successor relations. Our first main result characterises the class of FOcard-definable tree languages in terms of algebraic closure properties of the tree languages. As it can be effectively checked whether the language of a given tree automaton satisfies these closure properties, we obtain a decidable characterisation of the class of regular tree languages definable in FOcard. Our second main result considers first-order logic with unary relations, successor relations, and two additional designated symbols < and + that must be interpreted as a linear order and its associated addition. Such a formula is called addition-invariant if, for each fixed interpretation of the unary relations and successor relations, its result is independent of the particular interpretation of < and +. We show that the FOcard-definable tree languages are exactly the regular tree languages definable in addition-invariant first-order logic. Our proof techniques involve tools from algebraic automata theory, reasoning with locality arguments, and the use of logical interpretations. We combine and extend methods developed by Benedikt and Segoufin (ACM ToCL, 2009) and Schweikardt and Segoufin (LICS, 2010).

- Advances and applications of automata on words and trees : abstracts collection (2011)
- From 12.12.2010 to 17.12.2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10501 "Advances and Applications of Automata on Words and Trees" was held in Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in general. Links to extended abstracts or full papers are provided, if available.

- Advances and applications of automata on words and trees : executive summary (2011)
- Seminar: 10501 - Advances and Applications of Automata on Words and Trees. The aim of the seminar was to discuss and systematize the recent fast progress in automata theory and to identify important directions for future research. For this, the seminar brought together more than 40 researchers from automata theory and related fields of applications. We had 19 talks of 30 minutes and 5 one-hour lectures leaving ample room for discussions. In the following we describe the topics in more detail.