Cellular and nuclear morphology…and calcium signaling: revealing the interplay between structure and function
Peter von der Bengtson
- Poster presentation: Calcium plays a pivotal role in relaying electrical signals of the cell to subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus. Since this one ion type is used by the cell for many processes a neuron needs to establish finely tuned calcium pathways in order to be able to differentiate multiple tasks, [1-3].
While it is known that neurons can actively change their shape upon neuronal activity, [4-7], we here present novel findings of activity-regulated nuclear morphology, [8,9]. With the help of an experimental and computational modeling approach, we show that hippocampal neurons can change the previously spherical shape of their nuclei to complex and infolded morphologies. This morphology regulation is demonstrated to be regulated by NMDA-receptor gated calcium, while synaptic and extra-synaptic NMDA-receptors elicit opposing effects on nuclear morphology, .
The structural alterations of the cell nucleus have significant effects on nuclear calcium dynamics. Compartmentalization of the nucleus, due to membrane infoldings, changes calcium frequencies, amplitudes and spatial distributions, [8,10]. Since these parameters have been shown to control downstream events towards gene transcription, [11,12], the results elucidate the cellular control of nuclear function with the help of morphology modulation. With respect to processes downstream of calcium, we show that histone H3 phosphorylation is closely linked to nuclear morphology. Investigating the nuclear morphologies of hippocampal neurons, two major classes were identified [9,10]. One class contains non-infolded nuclei that have the function of calcium signal integrators, while the other class contains highly infolded nuclei, which function as frequency detectors of nuclear calcium, .
Extending this interdisciplinary approach of investigating structure/function relationships in neurons, the effects of cellular morphology – as well as the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles – on neuronal calcium signals is currently being investigated. This endeavor makes use of highly detailed, three-dimensional models of neuronal calcium dynamics, including the three-dimensional morphology of the cell and its organelles.
12th International Workshop on Termination (WST 2012) : WST 2012, February 19–23, 2012, Obergurgl, Austria
- This volume contains the proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Termination (WST 2012),
to be held February 19–23, 2012 in Obergurgl, Austria. The goal of the Workshop on Termination
is to be a venue for presentation and discussion of all topics in and around termination. In this way,
the workshop tries to bridge the gaps between different communities interested and active in research
in and around termination. The 12th International Workshop on Termination in Obergurgl continues
the successful workshops held in St. Andrews (1993), La Bresse (1995), Ede (1997), Dagstuhl (1999),
Utrecht (2001), Valencia (2003), Aachen (2004), Seattle (2006), Paris (2007), Leipzig (2009), and
The 12th International Workshop on Termination did welcome contributions on all aspects of termination
and complexity analysis. Contributions from the imperative, constraint, functional, and logic programming
communities, and papers investigating applications of complexity or termination (for example in
program transformation or theorem proving) were particularly welcome.
We did receive 18 submissions which all were accepted. Each paper was assigned two reviewers. In
addition to these 18 contributed talks, WST 2012, hosts three invited talks by Alexander Krauss, Martin Hofmann, and Fausto Spoto.
Encoding induction in correctness proofs of program transformations as a termination problem
- The diagram-based method to prove correctness of program transformations consists of computing
complete set of (forking and commuting) diagrams, acting on sequences of standard reductions
and program transformations. In many cases, the only missing step for proving correctness of a
program transformation is to show the termination of the rearrangement of the sequences. Therefore
we encode complete sets of diagrams as term rewriting systems and use an automated tool
to show termination, which provides a further step in the automation of the inductive step in
Lower bounds for multi-pass processing of multiple data streams
- This paper gives a brief overview of computation models for data stream processing, and it introduces a new model for multi-pass processing of multiple streams, the so-called mp2s-automata. Two algorithms for solving the set disjointness problem with these automata are presented. The main technical contribution of this paper is the proof of a lower bound on the size of memory and the number of heads that are required for solving the set disjointness problem with mp2s-automata.
Ambiguity and communication
- The ambiguity of a nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) N for input size n is the maximal number of accepting computations of N for an input of size n. For all k, r 2 N we construct languages Lr,k which can be recognized by NFA's with size k poly(r) and ambiguity O(nk), but Lr,k has only NFA's with exponential size, if ambiguity o(nk) is required. In particular, a hierarchy for polynomial ambiguity is obtained, solving a long standing open problem (Ravikumar and Ibarra, 1989, Leung, 1998).
Robustness mechanisms in biology
Rüdiger W. Brause
Simulation in the call-by-need lambda-calculus with letrec
- This paper shows the equivalence of applicative similarity and contextual approximation, and hence also of bisimilarity and contextual equivalence, in the deterministic call-by-need lambda calculus with letrec. Bisimilarity simplifies equivalence proofs in the calculus and opens a way for more convenient correctness proofs for program transformations. Although this property may be a natural one to expect, to the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first one providing a proof. The proof technique is to transfer the contextual approximation into Abramsky’s lazy lambda calculus by a fully abstract and surjective translation. This also shows that the natural embedding of Abramsky’s lazy lambda calculus into the call-by-need lambda calculus with letrec is an isomorphism between the respective term-models. We show that the equivalence property proven in this paper transfers to a call-by-need letrec calculus developed by Ariola and Felleisen. 1998 ACM Subject Classification: F.4.2, F.3.2, F.3.3, F.4.1. Key words and phrases: semantics, contextual equivalence, bisimulation, lambda calculus, call-by-need, letrec.
Regular tree languages, cardinality predicates, and addition-invariant FO
- This paper considers the logic FOcard, i.e., first-order logic with cardinality predicates that can specify the size of a structure modulo some number. We study the expressive power of FOcard on the class of languages of ranked, finite, labelled trees with successor relations. Our first main result characterises the class of FOcard-definable tree languages in terms of algebraic closure properties of the tree languages. As it can be effectively checked whether the language of a given tree automaton satisfies these closure properties, we obtain a decidable characterisation of the class of regular tree languages definable in FOcard. Our second main result considers first-order logic with unary relations, successor relations, and two additional designated symbols < and + that must be interpreted as a linear order and its associated addition. Such a formula is called addition-invariant if, for each fixed interpretation of the unary relations and successor relations, its result is independent of the particular interpretation of < and +. We show that the FOcard-definable tree languages are exactly the regular tree languages definable in addition-invariant first-order logic. Our proof techniques involve tools from algebraic automata theory, reasoning with locality arguments, and the use of logical interpretations. We combine and extend methods developed by Benedikt and Segoufin (ACM ToCL, 2009) and Schweikardt and Segoufin (LICS, 2010).
Proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS'09)
Advances and applications of automata on words and trees : abstracts collection
- From 12.12.2010 to 17.12.2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10501 "Advances and Applications of Automata on Words and Trees" was held in Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in general. Links to extended abstracts or full papers are provided, if available.