Multisensory legal machines and legal act production
- This paper expands on the concept of legal machine which was presented first at IRIS 2011
in Salzburg. The research subjects are (1) the creation of institutional facts by machines, and (2)
multimodal communication of legal content to humans. Simple examples are traffic lights and vending
machines. Complicated examples are computer-based information systems in organisations, form
proceedings workflows, and machines which replace officials in organisations. The actions performed
by machines have legal importance and draw legal consequences. Machines similarly as humans can
be imposed status-functions of legal actors. The analogy of machines with humans is in the focus of
this paper. Legal content can be communicated by machines and can be perceived by all of our senses.
The content can be expressed in multimodal languages: textual, visual, acoustic, gestures, aircraft
manoeuvres, etc. The concept of encapsulatation of human into machine is proposed. Herein humanintended
actions are communicated through the machine’s output channel. Encapsulations can be
compared with deities and mythical creatures that can send gods’ messages to people through the
human mouth. This paper also aims to identify law production patterns by machines.
Tagungsbericht XII. Internationaler Türkischer Germanistik-Kongress "Migration und kulturelle Diversität", 12.-14. Mai 2014, Kocaeli/Türkei : Eröffnungs- und Schlussrede der Abschlusssitzung
Sakarya Germanistik Çalıştayı Raporu
Ali Osman Öztürk
Mehmet Tahir Öncü
- 09-10. Eylül 2013 tarihinde Sakarya Üniversitesi Çeviri Bölümü Başkanı Sayın Prof. Dr. İlyas Öztürk'ün ev sahipliğinde gerçekleştirilen Germanistik Çalıştayı'nda
1) Almanca bölümleri ve üyeleri için (bölümler arasında dayanışma / ağ kurulabilmesi ve yurtiçi ve yurtdışı tanıtımlar vb. gibi) somut olarak neler yapılabilir?
2) Üyelerimizin yayınlarının dağıtımı ve bölümlerimizin ihtiyaç duyduğu (ihtiyacı karşılayacak nitelikte yazılmış) kitapların tespiti (ve/ya yazılması) için dernek çatısı altında neler yapılabilir?
3) XII. Uluslararası Türk Germanistik Kongresinin planlanması gündemli oturumlarda tartışılan ve benimsenen görüşler aşağıda sunulmuştur.
Regeln für Sprache und Strukturen : Standardisierung auf allen Ebenen
- Standardisierung ist der bedeutendste Ansatz zu Qualitätssteigerung und Kostensenkung in der Technischen Dokumentation. Es gibt eine Reihe von Standardisierungsansätzen: Modularisierung, Informationsstrukturen, Terminologie, Sprachstrukturen. Dennoch werden diese Ebenen meist getrennt voneinander beschrieben. Wir untersuchen, wie Standardisierungen im Informationsmodell, in der Terminologie und in den sprachlichen Strukturen verknüpft werden und miteinander interagieren.
Beam acceleration of DPIS RFQ at IMP
Robert A. Jameson
- Beam test of the direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) is carried out successfully for the first time in China, by setting up a comprehensive test and research platform of RFQ and laser ion source. The C6+ beam is accelerated successfully, and the peak beam current reaches more than 6mA which is measured by a Faraday cup of unique structure. The RF power coupled into the RFQ cavity is also examined, and results reveal that it is the RF power of about 195kW that can produce the peak beam current.
ErbB2/HER2-specific NK cells for adoptive cancer immunotherapy
Joachim P. Steinbach
Winfried S. Wels
- Poster presentation: 28th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC)
Significant progress has been made over the last decade towards realizing the potential of natural killer (NK) cells for cancer immunotherapy. NK cells can respond rapidly to transformed and stressed cells, and have the intrinsic potential to extravasate and reach their targets in almost all body tissues. In addition to donor-derived primary NK cells, also continuously expanding cytotoxic cell lines such as NK-92 are being considered for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. High cytotoxicity of NK-92 has previously been shown against malignant cells of hematologic origin in preclinical studies, and general safety of infusion of NK-92 cells has been established in phase I clinical trials. To enhance their therapeutic utility, we genetically modified NK-92 cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) specific for tumor-associated surface antigens. Such CAR were composed of a tumor-specific scFv antibody fragment fused via hinge and transmembrane domains to intracellular signaling moieties such as CD3 zeta chain, or composite fusion molecules also containing a costimulatory protein domain in addition to CD3 zeta. For development towards clinical applications, here a codon-optimized second generation CAR was constructed that consists of an ErbB2-specific scFv antibody domain fused via a linker to a composite CD28-CD3 zeta signaling domain. GMP-compliant protocols for vector production, lentiviral transduction and expansion of a genetically modified NK-92 single cell clone (NK-92/5.28.z) were established. Functional analysis of NK-92/5.28.z cells revealed high and stable CAR expression, selective cytotoxicity against ErbB2-expressing but otherwise NK-resistant tumor cells of different origins in vitro, as well as homing to ErbB2-expressing tumors in vivo. Furthermore, antigen specificity and selective cytotoxicity of these cells were retained in vivo, resulting in antitumoral activity against subcutaneous and intracranial glioblastoma xenografts in NSG mice. Ongoing work now focuses on the development of these cells for adoptive immunotherapy of ErbB2-positive glioblastoma.
From EUROTRANS to MAX: new strategies and approaches for the injector development
- As the successor of the EUROTRANS project, the MAX project is aiming to continue the R&D effects for a European Accelerator-Driven System and to bring the conceptual design to reality. The layout of the driver linac for MAX will follow the reference design made for the XT-ADS phase of the EUROTRANS project. For the injector part, new design strategies and approaches, e.g. half resonant frequency, half transition-energy between the RFQ and the CH-DTL, and using the 4-rod RFQ structure instead of the originally proposed 4-vane RFQ, have been conceived and studied to reach a more reliable CW operation at reduced costs. In this paper, the design and simulation results of the MAX injector are presented.
Reformbedarf im Recht der Vormundschaft/Pflegschaft
Synthesis of superheavy nuclei: obstacles and opportunities
Valeriy I. Zagrebaev
Alexander V. Karpov
- There are only 3 methods for the production of heavy and superheavy (SH) nuclei, namely, fusion reactions, a sequence of neutron capture and beta(-) decay and multinucleon transfer reactions. Low values of the fusion cross sections and very short half-lives of nuclei with Z<120 put obstacles in synthesis of new elements. At the same time, an important area of SH isotopes located between those produced in the cold and hot fusion reactions remains unstudied yet. This gap could be filled in fusion reactions of 48Ca with available lighter isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm. New neutron-enriched isotopes of SH elements may be produced with the use of a 48Ca beam if a 250Cm target would be prepared. In this case we get a real chance to reach the island of stability owing to a possible beta(+) decay of 291114 and 287112 nuclei formed in this reaction with a cross section of about 0.8 pb. A macroscopic amount of the long-living SH nuclei located at the island of stability may be produced by using the pulsed nuclear reactors of the next generation only if the neutron fluence per pulse will be increased by about three orders of magnitude. Multinucleon transfer processes look quite promising for the production and study of neutron-rich heavy nuclei located in upper part of the nuclear map not reachable by other reaction mechanisms. Reactions with actinide beams and targets are of special interest for synthesis of new neutron-enriched transfermium nuclei and not-yet-known nuclei with closed neutron shell N=126 having the largest impact on the astrophysical r-process. The estimated cross sections for the production of these nuclei allows one to plan such experiments at currently available accelerators.
Community and law: identifying the locus of law in community
- "Community and law approach" provides an illuminating insight into alternative legal orderings within a social unit. The comprehensiveness of legal systems within a community or a social unit, provides a suitable basis for a structural framework of alternative legal systems or Legal Pluralism, which is missing in the discourse on Legal Pluralism. "Identifying the locus of law within a community", provides us with an indication on how autopoetic a legal system can be within a social unit, taking into account the social rootedness of legal norms.