"nu sehent, wie der singet!" : vom Hervortreten des Sängers im Minnesang
- In (…) [den Verdoppelungen der textuellen Ich-Instanzen] zeigt sich (…) mit der Rolle des Minners/Werbers und derjenigen des Sängers zugleich beider Differenz und beider Rollenhaftigkeit; insofern könnte man sagen, daß Minnesang nicht so sehr Rollenlyrik ist, als vielmehr in bestimmten seiner Sektoren als Rollenlyrik sich selbst beschreibe. Dieserart lockert sich die Bindung des Textes an seinen pragmatischen Sprecher, der Regelzusammenhang selbstverständlich metonymischer Rede wird suspendiert: Wo zwei differente textuelle Sänger offenbar Rollen zu spielen – auch solche Rollen, die Rollen spielen. So lösen sich die Rollen von dem, der sie aktuell innehat, der sie nun vielmehr spielt. (…)
(Oscillating) non-exponential decays of unstable states
- We discuss deviations from the exponential decay law which occur when going beyond the Breit-
Wigner distribution for an unstable state. In particular, we concentrate on an oscillating behavior,
remisiscent of the Rabi-oscillations, in the short-time region. We propose that these oscillations
can explain the socalled GSI anomaly, which measured superimposed oscillations on top of the
exponential law for hydrogen-like nuclides decaying via electron-capture. Moreover, we discuss
the possibility that the deviations from the Breit-Wigner in the case of the GSI anomaly are (predominantely)
caused by the interaction of the unstable state with the measurement apparatus.
The consequences of this scenario, such as the non-observation of oscillations in an analogous
experiment perfromed at Berkley, are investigated.
12th European Conference on Traumatic Stress : human rights & psychotraumatology ; Vienna, Austria June 2-5, 2011 ; book of abstracts
- CONTENTS: Keynote Address and Invited Plenary Lectures Symposia Debates and Panels Oral Presentations and Specific Topics Poster Presentations Workshop Presentations Case Study Presentations and Media Presentations Symposien Workshops
12th International Workshop on Termination (WST 2012) : WST 2012, February 19–23, 2012, Obergurgl, Austria
- This volume contains the proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Termination (WST 2012),
to be held February 19–23, 2012 in Obergurgl, Austria. The goal of the Workshop on Termination
is to be a venue for presentation and discussion of all topics in and around termination. In this way,
the workshop tries to bridge the gaps between different communities interested and active in research
in and around termination. The 12th International Workshop on Termination in Obergurgl continues
the successful workshops held in St. Andrews (1993), La Bresse (1995), Ede (1997), Dagstuhl (1999),
Utrecht (2001), Valencia (2003), Aachen (2004), Seattle (2006), Paris (2007), Leipzig (2009), and
The 12th International Workshop on Termination did welcome contributions on all aspects of termination
and complexity analysis. Contributions from the imperative, constraint, functional, and logic programming
communities, and papers investigating applications of complexity or termination (for example in
program transformation or theorem proving) were particularly welcome.
We did receive 18 submissions which all were accepted. Each paper was assigned two reviewers. In
addition to these 18 contributed talks, WST 2012, hosts three invited talks by Alexander Krauss, Martin Hofmann, and Fausto Spoto.
21st Century Libraries: Changing Forms, Changing Challenges, Changing Objectives : 8th Frankfurt Scientific Symposium: 3.11.2008 - 4.11.2008
5-Lipoxygenase contributes to PPAR [gamma] activation in macrophages in response to apoptotic cells
Andreas von Knethen
Thorsten Jürgen Maier
- Background: One hallmark contributing to immune suppression during the late phase of sepsis is macrophage polarization to an anti-inflammatory phenotype upon contact with apoptotic cells (AC). Taking the important role of the nuclear receptor PPARγ for this phenotype switch into consideration, it remains elusive how AC activate PPARγ in macrophages. Therefore, we were interested to characterize the underlying principle.
Methods: Apoptosis was induced by treatment of Jurkat T cells for 3 hours with 0.5 μg/ml staurosporine. Necrotic cells (NC) were prepared by heating cells for 20 minutes to 65°C. PPARγ activation was followed by stably transducing RAW264.7 macrophages with a vector encoding the red fluorescent protein mRuby after PPARγ binding to 4 × PPRE sites downstream of the reporter gene sequence. This readout was established by treatment with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (1 μM) and AC (5:1). Twenty-four hours after stimulation, mRuby expression was analysed by fluorescence microscopy. Lipid rafts of AC, NC, as well as living cells (LC) were enriched by sucrose gradient centrifugation. Fractions were analysed for lipid raft-associated marker proteins. Lipid rafts were incubated with transduced RAW264.7 macrophages as described above. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) involvement was verified by pharmacological inhibition (MK-866, 1 μM) and overexpression.
Results: Assuming that the molecule responsible for PPARγ activation in macrophages is localized in the cell membrane of AC, most probably associated to lipid rafts, we isolated lipid rafts from AC, NC and LC. Mass spectrometric analysis of lipid rafts of AC showed the expression of 5-LO, whereas lipid rafts of LC did not. Moreover, incubating macrophages with lipid rafts of AC induced mRuby expression. In contrast, lipid rafts of NC and LC did not. To verify the involvement of 5-LO in activating PPARγ in macrophages, Jurkat T cells were incubated for 30 minutes with the 5-LO inhibitor MK-866 (1 μM) before apoptosis induction. In line with our hypothesis, these AC did not induce mRuby expression. Finally, although living Jurkat T cells overexpressing 5-LO did not activate PPARγ in macrophages, mRuby expression was significantly increased when AC were generated from 5-LO overexpressing compared with wild-type Jurkat cells.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that induction of apoptosis activates 5-LO, localizing to lipid rafts, necessary for PPARγ activation in macrophages. Therefore, it will be challenging to determine whether 5-LO activity in AC, generated from other cell types, correlates with PPARγ activation, contributing to an immune-suppressed phenotype in macrophages.
[Tagungsbericht zu:] Das Atrium von San Marco in Venedig. Die Genese der Genesismosaiken : Bad Homburg, Forschungskolleg Humanwissenschaften, 22. - 23.06.2012
Herbert L. Kessler
- Bericht der Organisatoren:
Die Tagung wollte ein Zeichen setzen: ein Zeichen, dass es geboten sei, sich erneut der Cotton Genesis und ihrem ausdrücklichsten mittelalterlichen Nachfahren, den Schöpfungsmosaiken der Vorhalle von San Marco in Venedig, zuzuwenden. Die Diskussion dieser Verbindung von frühchristlichen Illuminationen, die nur noch in wenigen verkohlten Fragmenten überliefert sind, mit den mittelalterlichen Mosaiken ist seit der Entdeckung durch Johan Jakob Tikkanen 1889 geführt worden. Sie kam 1986 mit der Edition der Cotton Genesis durch Kurt Weitzmann und Herbert Kessler zu einem vorläufigen Abschluss. Die Mosaiken erschienen als weitgehend getreue Kopie der Buchmalereien der Handschrift, die dabei allein redaktionelle, aber keine konzeptionelle Veränderungen durch die Mosaizisten erfahren hätten...
A co-original approach towards law-making in the internet age
Chi Shing Chen
- There is an increasing interest in incorporating significant citizen participation into the law-making process by developing the use of the internet in the public sphere. However, no well-accepted e-participation model has prevailed. This article points out that, to be successful, we need critical reflection of legal theory and we also need further institutional construction based on the theoretical reflection.
Contemporary dominant legal theories demonstrate too strong an internal legal point of view to empower the informal, social normative development on the internet. Regardless of whether we see the law as a body of rules or principles, the social aspect is always part of people’s background and attracts little attention. In this article, it is advocated that the procedural legal paradigm advanced by Jürgen Habermas represents an important breakthrough in this regard.
Further, Habermas’s co-originality thesis reveals a neglected internal relationship between public autonomy and private autonomy. I believe the co-originality theory provides the essential basis on which a connecting infrastructure between the legal and the social could be developed. In terms of the development of the internet to include the public sphere, co-originality can also help us direct the emphasis on the formation of public opinion away from the national legislative level towards the local level; that is, the network of governance.1
This article is divided into two sections. The focus of Part One is to reconstruct the co-originality thesis (section 2, 3). This paper uses the application of discourse in the adjudication theory of Habermas as an example. It argues that Habermas would be more coherent, in terms of his insistence on real communication in his discourse theory, if he allowed his judges to initiate improved interaction with the society. This change is essential if the internal connection between public autonomy and private autonomy in the sense of court adjudication is to be truly enabled.
In order to demonstrate such improved co-original relationships, the empowering character of the state-made law is instrumental in initiating the mobilization of legal intermediaries, both individual and institutional. A mutually enhanced relationship is thus formed; between the formal, official organization and its governance counterpart aided by its associated ‘local’ public sphere. Referring to Susan Sturm, the Harris v Forklift Systems Inc. (1930) decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the field of sexual harassment is used as an example.
Using only one institutional example to illustrate how the co-originality thesis can be improved is not sufficient to rebuild the thesis but this is as much as can be achieved in this article.
In Part Two, the paper examines, still at the institutional level, how Sturm develops an overlooked sense of impartiality, especially in the derivation of social norms; i.e. multi-partiality instead of neutral detachment (section 4). These two ideas should be combined as the criterion for impartiality to evaluate the legitimacy of the joint decision-making processes of both the formal official organization and ‘local’ public sphere.
Sturm’s emphasis on the deployment of intermediaries, both institutional and individual, can also enlighten the discourse theory. Intermediaries are essential for connecting the disassociated social networks, especially when a breakdown of communication occurs due to a lack of data, information, knowledge, or disparity of value orientation, all of which can affect social networks. If intermediaries are used, further communication will not be blocked as a result of the lack of critical data, information, knowledge or misunderstandings due to disparity of value orientation or other causes.
The institutional impact of the newly constructed co-originality thesis is also discussed in Part Two. Landwehr’s work on institutional design and assessment for deliberative interaction is first discussed. This article concludes with an indication of how the ‘local’ public sphere, through e-rulemaking or online dispute resolution, for example, can be constructed in light of the discussion of this article.
A demonstrator for the Micro-Vertex-Detector of the CBM experiment
- CMOS sensors are the most promising candidates for the Micro-Vertex-Detector (MVD) of the CBM experiment at GSI, as they provide an unprecedented compromise between spatial resolution, low material budget, adequate radiation tolerance and readout speed. To study the integration of these sensors into a detector module, a so-called MVD-demonstrator has been developed. The demonstrator and its in-beam performance will be presented and discussed in this work.
A modification of the mixed form of Richards equation and its application in vertically inhomogeneous soils
- Recently, new soil data maps were developed, which include vertical soil properties like soil type. Implementing those into a multilayer Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) scheme, discontinuities in the water content occur at the interface between dissimilar soils. Therefore, care must be taken in solving the Richards equation for calculating vertical soil water fluxes. We solve a modified form of the mixed (soil water and soil matric potential based) Richards equation by subtracting the equilibrium state of soil matrix potential ψE from the hydraulic potential ψh. The sensitivity of the modified equation is tested under idealized conditions. The paper will show that the modified equation can handle with discontinuities in soil water content at the interface of layered soils.