Synthesis of superheavy nuclei: obstacles and opportunities
Valeriy I. Zagrebaev
Alexander V. Karpov
- There are only 3 methods for the production of heavy and superheavy (SH) nuclei, namely, fusion reactions, a sequence of neutron capture and beta(-) decay and multinucleon transfer reactions. Low values of the fusion cross sections and very short half-lives of nuclei with Z<120 put obstacles in synthesis of new elements. At the same time, an important area of SH isotopes located between those produced in the cold and hot fusion reactions remains unstudied yet. This gap could be filled in fusion reactions of 48Ca with available lighter isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm. New neutron-enriched isotopes of SH elements may be produced with the use of a 48Ca beam if a 250Cm target would be prepared. In this case we get a real chance to reach the island of stability owing to a possible beta(+) decay of 291114 and 287112 nuclei formed in this reaction with a cross section of about 0.8 pb. A macroscopic amount of the long-living SH nuclei located at the island of stability may be produced by using the pulsed nuclear reactors of the next generation only if the neutron fluence per pulse will be increased by about three orders of magnitude. Multinucleon transfer processes look quite promising for the production and study of neutron-rich heavy nuclei located in upper part of the nuclear map not reachable by other reaction mechanisms. Reactions with actinide beams and targets are of special interest for synthesis of new neutron-enriched transfermium nuclei and not-yet-known nuclei with closed neutron shell N=126 having the largest impact on the astrophysical r-process. The estimated cross sections for the production of these nuclei allows one to plan such experiments at currently available accelerators.
Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particles residuals sampled by three different techniques
- During January/February 2013, at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch a measurement campaign was carried out, which was centered on atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) and ice particle residuals (IPR). Three different techniques for separation of INP and IPR from the non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed phase clouds and allow for the analysis of the residuals. The combination of the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) and the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated INP for analysis.Collected particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine size, chemical composition and mixing state. All INP/IPR-separating techniques had considerable abundances (median 20 – 70 %) of instrumental contamination artifacts (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH+IN-PCVI: steel particles). Also, potential sampling artifacts (e.g., pure soluble material) occurred with a median abundance of < 20 %. While these could be explained as IPR by ice break-up, for INP their IN-ability pathway is less clear. After removal of the contamination artifacts, silicates and Ca-rich particles, carbonaceous material and metal oxides were the major INP/IPR particle types separated by all three techniques. Soot was a minor contributor. Lead was detected in less than 10 % of the particles, of which the majority were internal mixtures with other particle types. Sea-salt and sulfates were identified by all three methods as INP/IPR. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 400 nm geometric diameter. In a few cases, a second super-micron maximum was identified. Soot/carbonaceous material and metal oxides were present mainly in the submicron range. ISI and FINCH yielded silicates and Ca-rich particles mainly with diameters above 1 μm, while the Ice-CVI also separated many submicron IPR. As strictly parallel sampling could not be performed, a part of the discrepancies between the different techniques may result from variations in meteorological conditions and subsequent INP/IPR composition. The observed differences in the particle group abundances as well as in the mixing state of INP/IPR express the need for further studies to better understand the influence of the separating techniques on the INP/IPR chemical
The Polar Stratosphere in a Changing Climate (POLSTRACC)
9th German Conference on Chemoinformatics [: introduction]
- Introduction to the supplement: 9th German Conference on Chemoinformatics, GCC2013
In silico polypharmacology: retrospective recognition vs. rational design
- Oral presentation 9th German Conference on Chemoinformatics Fulda, Germany. 10-12 November 2013.
The „one drug – one target – one disease“ paradigm in drug discovery has been reconsidered during the last decade...
Topographic embedding of MOR18-2 in the mouse olfactory bulb
- Poster presentation at 1st International Workshop on Odor Spaces.
Mice are exceptional in their ability to capture their chemical environment, mapping the olfactory world into a basic sensory representation with over one thousand different types of chemical sensors, that is, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). OSNs of each type converge in the olfactory bulb onto exclusive distinct physiological areas called glomeruli. The glomeruli constitute the first relay station of olfactory stimulus representation in the mouse brain. Thus, the stimulus induced glomerular input pattern spatially embodies an important part of the sensory representation in the olfactory bulb. Still, topographic organization principles (chemotopy, tunotopy) are under debate. One reason might be that investigation are, due to experimental limitations, only performed on stimuli sets in the size of one hundred odors. But this represents only a tiny snapshot of the vast amount of molecules in the olfactory world and topographic relationships might be disguised in the incomplete representation of molecular receptive ranges (MRR). Therefore we investigated the problem with the MOR18-2 glomerulus as point of reference: First we determined it's MRR. Then, based on a measurement set covering this MRR, we elucidated the topographic embedding. It shows that MOR18-2 is embedded in a hierarchy of patchy tunotopic domains.
Strongly interacting parton-hadron matter in- and out-off equilibrium
Elena L. Bratkovskaya
Volodymyr P. Konchakovski
- We study the equilibrium properties of strongly-interacting infinite parton-hadron matter, characterized by the transport coefficients such as shear and bulk viscosity and electric conductivity, and the non-equilibrium dynamics of heavy-ion collisions within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach, which incorporates explicit partonic degrees of freedom in terms of strongly interacting quasiparticles (quarks and gluons) in line with an equation of state from lattice QCD as well as the dynamical hadronization and hadronic collision dynamics in the final reaction phase. We discuss in particular the possible origin for the strong elliptic flow v2 of direct photons observed at RHIC energies.
Connexin 37 and Connexin 43 genotypes in correlation to cytokines in induced sputum and blood in cystic fibrosis (CF)
- Meeting abstract: Abstracts of the 50th Workshop for Pediatric Research
We have provided evidence in former studies that cytokines (IL-8, TNF alpha, LBP, TGFß) measured in blood correlate negatively with lung function in deltaF508 homozygous patients...
Modeling the effects of neuronal morphology on dendritic chloride diffusion and GABAergic inhibition
- Poster presentation at the Twenty Third Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2014 Québec City, Canada. 26-31 July 2014.
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are ligand-gated chloride (Cl−) channels which mediate the majority of inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS. Spatiotemporal changes of intracellular Cl− concentration alter the concentration gradient for Cl− across the neuronal membrane and thus affect the current flow through GABAARs and the efficacy of GABAergic inhibition. However, the impact of complex neuronal morphology on Cl− diffusion and the redistribution of intracellular Cl− is not well understood. Recently, computational models for Cl− diffusion and GABAAR-mediated inhibition in realistic neuronal morphologies became available [1-3]. Here we have used computational models of morphologically complex dendrites to test the effects of spines on Cl− diffusion. In all dendritic morphologies tested, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl− diffusion along dendrites and decreased the amount and spatial spread of synaptically evoked Cl− changes. Spine densities of 2-10 spines/µm decreased the longitudinal diffusion coefficient of Cl− to 80-30% of its value in smooth dendrites, respectively. These results suggest that spines are able to limit short-term ionic plasticity  at dendritic GABAergic synapses.
The emergence of cohorts of co-active neurons in random recurrent networks provides a mechanism for orientation and direction selectivity
- Poster presentation at The Twenty Third Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting: CNS*2014 Québec City, Canada. 26-31 July 2014: We study random strongly heterogeneous recurrent networks of firing rate neurons, introducing the notion of cohorts: groups of co-active neurons, who compete for firing with one another and whose presence depends sensitively on the structure of the input. The identities of neurons recruited to and dropped from an active cohort changes smoothly with varying input features. We search for network parameter regimes in which the activation of cohorts is robust yet easily switchable by the external input and which exhibit large repertoires of different cohorts. We apply these networks to model the emergence of orientation and direction selectivity in visual cortex. We feed these random networks with a set of harmonic inputs that vary across neurons only in their temporal phase, mimicking the feedforward drive due to a moving grating stimulus. The relationship between the phases that carries the information about the orientation of the stimulus determines which cohort of neurons is activated. As a result the individual neurons acquire non-monotonic orientation tuning curves which are characterized by high orientation and direction selectivity. This mechanism of emergence for direction selectivity differs from the classical motion detector scheme, which is based on the nonlinear summation of the time-shifted inputs. In our model these two mechanisms coexist in the same network, but can be distinguished by their different frequency and contrast dependences. In general, the mechanism we are studying here converts temporal phase sequence into population activity and could therefore be used to extract and represent also various other relevant stimulus features.