Ninjurin 1 contributes to TLR-induced inflammation in endothelial cells
- Background: Nerve injury induced protein 1 (Ninjurin 1 (Ninj1)) was first identified in Schwann cells and neurons contributing to cell adhesion and nerve regeneration. Recently, the role of Ninj1 has been linked to inflammatory processes in the central nervous system where functional repression reduced leukocyte infiltration and clinical disease activity during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice . But Ninj1 is also expressed outside the nervous system in various organs such as the liver and kidney as well as on leukocytes [2,3]. Therefore, we hypothesized that Ninj1 contributes to inflammation in general; that is, also outside the nervous system, with special interest in the pathogenesis of sepsis.
Methods: Ninj1 was repressed by transfecting HMEC-1 cells, a human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line with siRNA targeting Ninj1 (siNinj1) or a negative control (siC). Subsequently, cells were stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS (TLR4 agonist), 3 μg/ml LTA (TLR2 agonist) or 100 n/ml poly(I:C) (TLR3 agonist) for 3 hours. The inflammatory response was analyzed by real-time PCR. In addition, transmigration of neutrophils across a HMEC-1 monolayer was measured using transwell plates (pore size 3 μm).
Results: Repression of Ninj1 by siRNA reduced Ninj1 mRNA expression in HMEC about 90% (Figure 1A). Reduced Ninj1 expression decreased neutrophil migration to 62.5% (Figure 1B) and TLR signaling. In detail, knockdown of Ninj1 significantly reduced TLR-2 and TLR-4 triggered expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 (Figure 1C,D) while poly(I:C)-induced expression was only slightly reduced. To analyze a more specific TLR-3 target, we measured IP-10 mRNA expression, which was also significantly reduced in siNinj1-transfected cells (Figure 1E).
Conclusion: Our in vitro data strongly indicated that Ninj1 is involved in regulation of TLR signaling and therewith contributes to inflammation. In vivo experiments will clarify its impact on systemic inflammation.
Pattern recognition receptors as key players in adrenal gland dysfunction during sepsis
Thi Hoai Nguyen Tran
Stefan R. Bornstein
- Background: Undergoing systemic inflammation, the innate immune system releases excessive proinflammatory mediators, which finally can lead to organ failure. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), form the interface between bacterial and viral toxins and innate immunity. During sepsis, patients with diagnosed adrenal gland insufficiency are at high risk of developing a multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, which dramatically increases the risk of mortality. To date, little is known about the mechanisms leading to adrenal dysfunction under septic conditions. Here, we investigated the sepsis-related activation of the PRRs, cell inflammation, and apoptosis within adrenal glands.
Methods: Two sepsis models were performed: the polymicrobial sepsis model (caecal ligation and puncture (CLP)) and the LTA-induced intoxication model. All experiments received institutional approval by the Regierungspräsidium Darmstadt. CLP was performed as previously described , wherein one-third of the caecum was ligated and punctured with a 20-gauge needle. For LTA-induced systemic inflammation, TLR2 knockout (TLR2-/-) and WT mice were injected intraperitoneally with pure LTA (pLTA; 1 mg/kg) or PBS for 2 hours. To detect potential direct adrenal dysfunction, mice were additionally injected with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 100 μg/kg) 1 hour after pLTA or PBS. Adrenals and plasma samples were taken. Gene expressions in the adrenals (rt-PCR), cytokine release (multiplex assay), and the apoptosis rate (TUNEL assay) within the adrenals were determined.
Results: In both models, adrenals showed increased mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4, various NLRs, cytokines as well as inflammasome components, NADPH oxidase subunits, and nitric oxide synthases (data not shown). In WT mice, ACTH alone had no effect on inflammation, while pLTA or pLTA/ACTH administration showed increased levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα. TLR2-/- mice indicated no response as expected (Figure 1, left). Interestingly, surviving CLP mice showed no inflammatory adrenal response, whereas nonsurvivors had elevated cytokine levels (Figure 1, right). Additionally, we identified a marked increase in apoptosis of both chromaffin and steroid-producing cells in adrenal glands obtained from mice with sepsis as compared with their controls (Figure 2).
Conclusion: Taken together, sepsis-induced activation of the PRRs may contribute to adrenal impairment by enhancing tissue inflammation, oxidative stress and culminate in cellular apoptosis, while mortality seems to be associated with adrenal inflammation.
Chasing the Unicorn: RHIC and the QGP
Robert D. Pisarski
- At nonzero temperature, it is expected that QCD undergoes a phase transition to a deconfined, chirally symmetric phase, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). I review what we expect theoretically about this possible transition, and what we have learned from heavy ion experiments at RHIC. I argue that while there are unambiguous signals for qualitatively new behavior at RHIC, versus experiments at lower energies, that in detail, no simple theoretical model can explain all salient features of the data.
12th International Workshop on Termination (WST 2012) : WST 2012, February 19–23, 2012, Obergurgl, Austria
- This volume contains the proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Termination (WST 2012),
to be held February 19–23, 2012 in Obergurgl, Austria. The goal of the Workshop on Termination
is to be a venue for presentation and discussion of all topics in and around termination. In this way,
the workshop tries to bridge the gaps between different communities interested and active in research
in and around termination. The 12th International Workshop on Termination in Obergurgl continues
the successful workshops held in St. Andrews (1993), La Bresse (1995), Ede (1997), Dagstuhl (1999),
Utrecht (2001), Valencia (2003), Aachen (2004), Seattle (2006), Paris (2007), Leipzig (2009), and
The 12th International Workshop on Termination did welcome contributions on all aspects of termination
and complexity analysis. Contributions from the imperative, constraint, functional, and logic programming
communities, and papers investigating applications of complexity or termination (for example in
program transformation or theorem proving) were particularly welcome.
We did receive 18 submissions which all were accepted. Each paper was assigned two reviewers. In
addition to these 18 contributed talks, WST 2012, hosts three invited talks by Alexander Krauss, Martin Hofmann, and Fausto Spoto.
Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung ; Medizinische Fakultät der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München ; 05.-08. Oktober 2011 ; Tagungsband ; [Lehren - Lernen - Prüfen ; von der Dissonanz zum Dreiklang? ; abstracts] ; Lehren - Lernen - Prüfen
- Book of Abstracts: Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA): 05.10. - 08.10.2011, München
Encoding induction in correctness proofs of program transformations as a termination problem
- The diagram-based method to prove correctness of program transformations consists of computing
complete set of (forking and commuting) diagrams, acting on sequences of standard reductions
and program transformations. In many cases, the only missing step for proving correctness of a
program transformation is to show the termination of the rearrangement of the sequences. Therefore
we encode complete sets of diagrams as term rewriting systems and use an automated tool
to show termination, which provides a further step in the automation of the inductive step in
Ordnungen des Sehens / Systems of Perception
Effektivitätssteigerung von Chemotherapien durch statische Magnetfelder in vivo
Martin E. Eichhorn
- Einleitung: Lokoregionäre Rezidivtumore der Kopf-Hals-Region können häufig nicht mehr kurativ operativ oder radiotherapeutisch behandelt werden, so dass neue Therapiekonzepte erforderlich sind. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass statische Magnetfelder (SMF) Tumorwachstum und -angiogenese signifikant beeinflussen und zu einem intratumoralen Ödem führen. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Evaluation des Effektes von SMF auf die Permeabilität von Tumorblutgefäßen und die therapeutische Nutzbarkeit in Kombination mit einer konventionellen Chemotherapie.
Methoden: Zellen eines syngenen amelanotischen Melanoms wurden in transparente Rückenhautkammern bei Goldhamstern implantiert. Unter SMF-Exposition von 587 mT wurde fluoreszenzmikroskopisch die Extravasation von rhodaminmarkiertem Albumin zur Errechnung der Gefäßpermeabilität gemessen und intratumorale Leukozyten-Endothelzell-Interaktionen quantifiziert. Für die anschließende Therapiestudie wurden die antitumoralen Effekte einer Kombinationstherapie von Paclitaxel und SMF-Exposition verglichen mit drei Kontrollgruppen (Glucose, Paclitaxel allein, SMF allein; je n=6).
Ergebnisse: SMF führen zu einer signifikanten Erhöhung der Tumorblutgefäßpermeabilität bei unveränderten Leukozyten-Endothelzell-Interaktionen. Die Kombinationstherapie von SMF und Paclitaxel ist – bezogen auf Tumorwachstum und Angiogenese – Monotherapien überlegen.
Schlussfolgerung: Eine SMF-induzierte Steigerung der Gefäßpermeabilität kann die Blut-Tumor-Schranke beeinflussen und somit die Effektivität einer Chemotherapie mit kleinmolekularen Substanzen wie Paclitaxel deutlich steigern. Bei Verwendung von Kopfspulen erscheint eine derartige adjuvante Kombinationstherapie für lokoregionäre Karzinomrezidive der Kopf-Hals-Region besonders geeignet.
Open Access 7th German Conference on Chemoinformatics: 25 CIC-Workshop : Goslar, Germany. 6-8 November 2011 ; meeting abstracts
Design of dual ligands using excessive pharmacophore query alignment
Estel la Buscató
- Oral presentation
Dual- or multi-target ligands have gained increased attention in the past years due to several advantages, including more simple pharmacokinetic and phamarcodynamic properties compared to a combined application of several drugs. Furthermore multi-target ligands often possess improved efficacy . We present a new approach for the discovery of dual-target ligands using aligned pharmacophore models combined with a shape-based scoring. Starting with two sets of known active compounds for each target, a number of different pharmacophore models is generated and subjected to pairwise graph-based alignment using the Kabsch-Algorithm [2,3]. Since a compound may be able to bind to different targets in different conformations, the algorithm aligns pairs of pharmacophore models sharing the same features which are not necessarily at the exactly same spatial distance. Using the aligned models, a pharmacophore search on a multi-conformation-database is performed to find compounds matching both models. The potentially “dual” ligands are scored by a shape-based comparison with the known active molecules using ShaEP .
Using this approach, we performed a prospective fragment-based virtual screening for dual 5-LO/sEH inhibitors. Both enzymes play an important role in the arachidonic acid cascade and are involved in inflammatory processes, pain, cardiovascular diseases and allergic reactions [5,6]. Beside several new selective inhibitors we were able to find a compound inhibiting both enzymes in low micromolar concentrations. The results indicate that the idea of aligned pharmacophore models can be successfully employed for the discovery of dual-target ligands.