Analysis of splicing sensitive microarrays
- Due to recent technical developments, it became evident that the mammalian transcriptome is much more complex than originally expected. Alternative splicing(AS) and the transcription of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are two phenomenas which have been greatly underestimated in their frequency. Nowadays it is accepted that almost every gene has at least one alternative isoform and the number of lncRNAs exceeds the one of protein-coding genes.
We built user-friendly web interfaces which can process Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0 ST Arrays (exon arrays) and GeneChip Gene 1.0 ST Arrays (gene arrays)for the analysis of alternative splicing events. Results are presented with detailed annotation information and graphics to identify splice events and to facilitate biological validations. Based on two studies using exon arrays, we show how our tools were used to profile genome-wide splicing changes under silencing of Jmjd6 and under hypoxic conditions. Since gene arrays are not intended for AS analysis originally, we demonstrated their applicability by profiling alternative splicing events during embryonic heart development.
To measure lncRNAs expressions with exon arrays, we completely re-annotation all probes and built a lncRNA specific annotation. To demonstrate the applicability of exon arrays in combination with our annotation, we profiled the expression of tens of thousands of lncRNAs. Further, our custom annotation allows for a detailed inspection of lncRNAs and to distinguish between isoforms, as we validated by RTPCR.
To allow for a general usage to the research community, we integrated the annotation in an easy-to-use web interface, which provides various helpful features for the analysis of lncRNAs.
Learning sequences of actions : infant experiments and neural network models
- In our daily life, we carry out lots of tasks like typing, playing tennis, and playing the piano, without even noticing there is sequence learning involved. No matter how simple or complex they are, these tasks require the sequential planning and execution of a series of movements. As an ability of primary importance in one’s life, and an ability that everyone manages to learn, action-sequence learning has been studied by researchers from different fields: psychologists, neurophysiologists as well as roboticists. In the concept of sequence learning, perceptual learning and motor learning, implicit and explicit learning have been studied and discussed independently.
We are interested in infancy research, because infants, with underdeveloped brain functions and with limited motor ability, have little experience with the world and not yet built internal models as presumption of how to interpret the world. A series of infant experiments in the 1980s provided evidence that infants can rapidly develop anticipatory eye movements for visual events. Even when infants have no control of those spatial-temporal patterns, they can respond actually prior to the onset of the visual event, referred as "Anticipation".
In this work, we applied a gaze-contingent paradigm using real-time eye tracking to put 6- and 8-month-old infants in direct control of their visual surroundings. This paradigm allows the infant to change an image on a screen by looking at a peripheral red disc, which functions as a switch. We found that infants quickly learn to perform eye movements to trigger the appearance of new stimuli and that they anticipate the consequences of their actions in an early stage of the experiment.
Attention-shift from learning one stimulus to the next novel stimulus is important in sequence learning. In the test phase of infant visual habituation with two objects, we propose a new theory of explaining the familiarity-to-novelty shift. In our opinion an infant’s interest in a stimulus is related to its learning progress, the improvement of performance. As a consequence, infants prefer the stimulus which their current learning progress is maximal for, naturally giving rise to a familiarity-to-novelty shift in certain situations. Our network model predicts that the familiarity-to-novelty-shift only emerges for complex stimuli that produce bell-shaped learning curves after brief familiarization, but does not emerge for simple stimuli that produce exponentially decreasing learning curves or for long familiarization time, which is consistent with experimental results. This research suggests the infant's interest in a stimulus may be related to its current learning progress. This can give rise to a dynamic familiarity-to-novelty shift depending on both the infant's learning efficiency and the task complexity.
We know that for both infants and adults, the performance on certain motor-sequence tasks can be improved through practice. However, adults usually have to perform complex tasks in complicated environments; for example, learning multiple tasks is unavoidable in our daily life. In existing research, learning multiple tasks showed puzzling and seemingly contradictory results. On the one hand, a wide variety of proactive and retroactive interference effects have been observed when multiple tasks have to be learned. On the other hand, some studies have reported facilitation and transfer of learning between different tasks.
In order to find out the interaction between multiple-task learning, and to find an optimal training schedule, we use a recurrent neural network to model a series of experiments on movement sequence learning. The network model learns to carry out the correct movement sequences through training and reproduces differences between training schedules such as blocked training vs. random training in psychophysics experiments. The network model also shows striking similarity to human performance, and makes prediction for tasks similarity and different training schedules.
In conclusion, the thesis presents learning sequences of actions in infants and recurrent neural networks. We carried out a gaze-contingent experiment to study infants’ rapid anticipation of their own action outcomes, and we also constructed two recurrent neural network models, with one model explaining infant attention shift in visual habituation, and the other model directing to task similarity and training schedule in motor sequence control in adults.
Anguläre Analyse des Gesichts - Vergleich von manuellen mit computergestützten Parameter
- Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es die computergestützte, lichtoptometrische Gesichtsscannung ‚Primos body‘ zur dreidimensionalen Weichteilvermessung des Gesichts gegenüber der althergebrachten, manuellen Gesichtvermessung durch das ‚Clinometer nach Dr. Behrend‘ für den Bereich der Kieferorthopädie zu evaluieren. An dieser Untersuchung haben insgesamt 42 gesunde Erwachsene im Alter zwischen 24 und 51 Jahren teilgenommen. Um die optimalen Versuchsanordnungen sowie die Untersucher-Intervariabilität der Geräte festzustellen sind Voruntersuchungen durchgeführt worden. Bestandteil der Hauptuntersuchungen ist es mittels beider Apparaturen definierte Winkel zu vermessen und vergleichend auszuwerten. Für beide Messreihen kommen Landmarken im Bereich der Gesichtsmitte (Glabella, Nasenspitze und Hauptpogonion) zur Anwendung. Bezüglich Primos body werden zusätzlich die Abbildungen lächelnder sowie nicht lächelnder Gesichter (l- und nl- Messreihe) softwaregestützt nach definierten Winkeln ausgewertet. Die Voruntersuchungen ergeben, dass für das Clinometer die Methode „Fläche – Kopfhalterung“ als die sicherste Variante bezüglich der Reproduzierbarkeit der Messwerte einzustufen ist. Zur zusätzlichen Fixierung des Clinometers sollte daher zukünftig eine Kopfhalterung eingesetzt werden. Ferner sollte es auf eine Fläche aufgelegt werden. Abgesehen davon besagen die statistischen Auswertungen, dass das Clinometer nach Dr. Behrend einer häheren Untersucher-Intervariabilität unterliegt, als das Primos body. Die Untersucher-Intervariabilität des Clinometers liegt aber in einer klinisch wenig relevanten Größenordnung (<1°).
Für die Messungen der Hauptuntersuchungen mittels des Primos bodys sind folgende Winkel gewählt worden: Die erste Halbgerade stellt immer die Bipupillarlinie dar, die zweiten Halbgeraden werden gebildet aus den Verbindungslinien zwischen 1) Glabella und Nasenspitze (BN); 2) Glabella und Hauptpogonion (BK); 3) den beiden äußeren Augenwinkeln (BäA); 4) den bei-den Mundwinkeln (BM); 5) den beiden inneren Augenwinkeln (BiA); 6) Glabella und dem Interincisalpunkt (BI) sowie 7) den beiden Eckzahnspitzen (BE).
Der Winkel BN hat in den l- und nl-Messreihen die größte Distanz zur Symmetrieebene, beim Lächeln verändert er sich am stärksten und bezüglich der Standardabweichung unterliegt er der größten Streuung. Der Winkel BäA unterliegt der kleinsten Distanz zur 0°-Ebene, verändert sich beim Lächeln am wenigsten und weist bezüglich der Standardabweichung die geringste Streuung auf. Der Winkel BK konnte vom Untersucher am präzisesten bestimmt werden, dem Winkel BE wird hingegen die größte Ungenauigkeit zugeschrieben. Die Gesichter der Probanden dieser Studie werden beim Lächeln nicht symmetrischer oder asymmetrischer. Vielmehr nähert sich die Veränderung einer Gauß`schen Normalverteilung an. Der Winkel BK verändert sich beim Lächeln signifikant stärker, wenn er in nicht lächelnder Stellung weit von der Symmetrieebene entfernt ist (Spearman-Rho-Test: p=0,015). Für alle anderen Winkel sind keine Signifikanzen diesbezüglich festzustellen. Auch gilt für BK: Die Gesichter der Frauen der Studie sind sowohl in der nl- als auch l-Messreihe bezüglich des Winkels BK signifikant symmetrischer als die der Männer (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-U-Tests: p<0,05). Der Bland-Altman-Test ergibt, dass der Winkel BK eher mit dem Ästhetikwinkel vergleichbar ist als der Winkel BN. Für zukünftige Vermessungen mit dem Clinometer sollte die Gesichtsmitte daher eher durch Hinzuziehen der Kinnmitte, als der Nasenachse zur Bestimmung des Ästhetikwinkels miteinbezogen werden. Weiterführend ist die softwaregestützte Gesichtsvermessungsmethode mit Primos body bezüglich der Messgenauigkeit dem Clinometer überlegen. Die vorliegende Dissertation kann somit ein neues bildgebendes Verfahren im Bereich der dreidimensionalen Gesichtsvermessung spe-ziell für das kieferorthopädische und kieferchirurgische Gebiet vorstellen, mit Hilfe jener zahlreiche Anwendungsmöglichkeiten in Diagnostik, Planung, Therapie und Nachsorge bestehen. Zusätzlich sollen die Ergebnisse Anstoß für weitere Forschungen im Bereich der dreidimensionalen Gesichtsvermessung sein um zukünftig invasive bildgebende Verfahren ersetzten zu können.
The major works of Rudolf Bahro
Gordon W. Smith
- This thesis represents an original contribution to research in offering a comprehensive analysis of the work of Rudolf Bahro. The thesis combines a study of Bahro's work as a prominent opposition figure in the German Democratic Republic in the 1970s with an assessment of his career as an outspoken member of the West German Green Party in the 1980s. The core of the thesis is devoted to a thorough reappraisal of Bahro's major critique of 'actually existing socialism' in East Germany, Die Alternative - Zyr Kraik des real existierenden Sozialismus. Bahro's harsh critique of the SED is explored within the context of the GDR's historical development and Eastern European Marxist revisionism in general. A critical analysis of the extensive secondary literature which now surrounds this work is undertaken to discover how far existing interpretations offer an accurate assessment of Die Alternative. A further section compares for the first time the differing reception of Bahro's study in both East and West Germany. Bahro's earliest essays as an editor of the GDR journal Forum and his first critical work ... die nicht mit den Wolfen heulen are discussed as a key to establishing the particular nature of his opposition. Later chapters trace the development of Sahro's theories and discuss his contribution to the peace and ecology debates in West Germany in the 1980s. Bahro's efforts to achieve a synthesis of the interests of ecology and socialism are explored and his 'Fundamentalist' version of Green politics is discussed within the context of the Green Party's early development. The thesis concludes with an assessment of the increasingly radical utopianism permeating Bahro's writings and offers a critical examination of his attempts to infuse the ecology debate with a spiritual dimension, as detailed in Logik der Rettung, his chief work written in West Germany.
Occurrence, distribution and behavior of hydrophilic ethers in the aquatic environment
Daria Katarzyna Demers-Stępień
- The objective of the present doctoral thesis was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and behaviour of six hydrophilic ethers: ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), 1,4-dioxane, ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (monoglyme), diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diglyme), triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (triglyme), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (tetraglyme) in surface-, waste-, ground- and drinking water samples. Solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to analyze the six hydrophilic ethers. Altogether more than 150 surface water samples, almost 100 of each groundwater and wastewater samples, and 10 raw and drinking water samples were analyzed during the research project.
Initially, the method was validated in order to simultaneously determine the analytes of interest in various aquatic environments. A solid phase extraction method that uses coconut charcoal (Resprep® activated coconut charcoal, Restek) or carbon molecular sieve material (SupelcleanTM Envi-CarbTM Plus, Supelco) for analyte absorption were found suitable for determination of ETBE, 1,4-dioxane, and glymes in surface-, drinking-, ground- and wastewater samples. Precision and accuracy of both methods was demonstrated for all analytes of interest. The recovery of target compounds from the ultrapure water spiked at 1.0 µg L−1 was between 86.8 % and 98.2 %, with relative standard deviation below 6 %. The samples spiked at 10.0 µg L−1 gave slightly higher recovery of 90.6 % to 112.2 % with a relative standard deviation below 3.4 % for each analyte. Detection and quantification limits in ultrapure water and surface waters were furthermore established. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) in ultrapure water ranged between 0.024 µg L−1 to 0.057 µg L−1 using Restek cartridges, and 0.030 µg L−1 to 0.069 µg L−1 using Supelco cartridges. In the surface water samples the calculated LOQ was 0.032 µg L−1 to 0.067µg L−1 using coconut charcoal material and 0.032 µg L−1 to 0.052 µg L−1 using the carbon molecular sieve material. Moreover, stability of the unpreserved and preserved water samples as well as the extracts was determined. Preservation of samples with sodium bisulfate (at 1 gram per Liter) resulted in much better stability of the ethers in water samples. Subsequently, 27 samples obtained from seven surface water bodies in Germany (Rivers Rhine, Lippe, Main, Oder, Rur, Schwarzbach and Wesel-Datteln Canal) were analyzed for the six hydrophilic ethers. ETBE was present in only two surface waters (Rhine River and Wesel-Datteln Canal) with concentrations close to the LOQ (up to 0.065 µg L−1). 1,4-Dioxane was detected in all of the water samples at concentrations reaching 1.93 µg L–1. Monoglyme was identified only in the Main and Rhine Rivers at the maximum concentration of 0.114 µg L–1 and 0.427 µg L–1, respectively. Very high concentrations (up to 1.73 µg L−1) of diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme were detected in the samples from the Oder River. These glymes were also detected in the Rhine River; however the concentrations did not exceed 0.200 µg L–1. Furthermore, tetraglyme was detected in the Main River at an average concentration of 0.409 µg L–1 (n = 6) and in one sample from the Rur River at 0.192 µg L–1.
Four sampling campaigns were conducted at the Oderbruch polder between October 2009 and May 2012, in order to study the behavior of the hydrophilic ethers and organophosphates during riverbank filtration and in the anoxic aquifer. Moreover the suitability of these target compounds was assessed for their use as groundwater organic tracers. At the time of each sampling campaign, concentrations of triglyme and tetraglyme in the Oder River were between 20–185 ng L–1 (n = 4) and 273¬–1576 ng L–1 (n = 4). Monoglyme, diglyme, and 1,4-dioxane were analyzed only during the two last sampling campaigns. At that time, the concentration of diglyme in Oder River was 65¬–94 ng L-1 (n = 2) and 1,4-dioxane 1610¬–3290 ng L–1 (n = 2). In the drainage ditch, following bank filtration, concentrations of ethers ranged between 1090 ng L–1 and 1467 ng L–1 for 1,4-dioxane, 23¬ng L–1 and 41 ng L–1 for diglyme, 37 ng L–1 and 149 ng L–1 for triglyme, and 496 ng L–1 and 1403 ng L–1 for tetraglyme. In the anoxic aquifer, 1,4-dioxane showed the greatest persistence during the groundwater passage. At the distance of 1150 m from the river and an estimated groundwater age of 41.9 years, a concentration above 200 ng L−1 was detected. A positive correlation was found for the inorganic tracer chloride (Cl−) with 1,4-dioxane and tetraglyme. Similarities in the behavior of Cl− and the organic compound suggested that 1,4-dioxane and tetraglyme are controlled by the same hydraulic process and therefore can be used as additional tracers to study the dynamics of the groundwater system. These results show that high concentrations of ethers are present in the surface water and are not removed during bank filtration processes. Moreover, the hydrophilic ethers persist in the anoxic aquifer and little or no degradation is expected, supporting, their possible application as organic tracers.
A separate sampling project was conducted for 1,4-dioxane that focused primarily on its fate in the aquatic environment. This study provided missing information on the extent of water pollution with 1,4-dioxane is Germany. Numerous waste-, surface-, ground- and drinking water samples were collected in order to determine the persistence of 1,4-dioxane in the aquatic environment. The occurrence of 1,4-dioxane was determined in wastewater samples from four municipal sewage treatment plants (STP). The influent and effluent samples were collected during weekly campaigns. The average influent concentrations in all four plants ranged from 262 ± 32 ng L−1 to 834 ± 480 ng L−1, whereas the average effluents concentrations were between 267 ± 35 ng L−1 and 62,260 ± 36,000 ng L−1. The source of increased 1,4-dioxane concentrations in one of the effluents was identified to originate from impurities in the methanol used in the postanoxic denitrification process. Spatial and temporal distribution of 1,4-dioxane in the river Main, Rhine, and Oder was also examined. Concentrations reaching 2,200 ng L−1 in the Oder River, and 860 ng L−1 in both Main and Rhine River were detected. The average load during the sampling was estimated to be 6.5 kg d−1 in the Main, 34.1 kg d−1 in the Oder, and 134.5 kg d−1 in the Rhine River. In all of the sampled rivers, concentrations of 1,4-dioxane increased with distance from the mouth of the river and were found to negatively correlate with the discharge of the river. In order to determine if 1,4-dioxane can reach drinking water supplies, samples from a Rhine River bank filtration site and potable water from two drinking water production facilities were analyzed for the presence of 1,4-dioxane in the raw water and finished potable water. The raw water (following bank filtration) contained 650 ng L−1 to 670 ng L−1 of 1,4-dioxane, whereas the concentration in the finished drinking water fell only to 600 ng L−1 and 490 ng L−1, respectively.
During the final project, investigations of the source identification of high glyme concentrations in the Oder River were carried out. During four sampling campaigns between January, 2012 and April, 2013, 50 samples from the Oder River in the Oderbruch region and Poland were collected. During the first two samplings in the Oderbruch polder, glymes were detected at concentration reaching 0.07 µg L-1 (diglyme), 0.54 µg L−1 (triglyme) and 1.73 µg L−1 (tetraglyme) in the Oder River. The extensive sampling campaign of the Oder River (about 500 km) in Poland helped to identify the area of possible glyme entry into the river. During that sampling the maximum concentrations of triglyme and tetraglyme were 0.46 µg L−1 and 2.21 µg L−1, respectively. A closer investigation of the identified area of pollution, helped to determine the possible sources of glymes in the Oder River. Hence, the final sampling focused on the Kaczawa River, a left tributary of the Oder River and Czarna Woda, a left tributary of Kaczawa River. Moreover, samples from an industrial wastewater treatment plant were collected. Samples from Czarna Woda stream and Kaczawa River contained even higher concentrations of diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme, reaching 5.18 µg L−1, 12.87 µg L−1 and 80.81 µg L−1, respectively. Finally, three water samples from a wastewater treatment plant receiving influents from a copper smelter were analyzed. Diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme were present at an average concentration of 569 µg L−1, 4300 µg L−1, and 65900 µg L−1, respectively in the wastewater. Further research helped to identify the source of the glymes in the wastewater. The gas desulfurization process – Solinox implemented in the nearby copper smelter uses glymes as physical absorption medium for sulfur dioxide.
Results of this doctoral research provide important information about the occurrence, distribution, and behavior of hydrophilic ethers: 1,4-dioxane, monoglyme, diglyme, triglyme, and tetraglyme in the aquatic environment. A method capable of analyzing a wide range of ether compounds: from a volatile ETBE to a high molecular weight tetraglyme was validated. 1,4-Dioxane and tetraglyme were found to be applicable as organic tracers, since they are not easily attenuated during bank filtration and the anoxic groundwater passage. The extent of water pollution with 1,4-dioxane was shown in waste-, surface-, ground-, and drinking waters. One source of extremely high concentrations of 1,4-dioxane in a municipal sewage treatment plant applying postanoxic denitrification was identified, however more information is needed on the entry of 1,4-dioxane into surface waters. Moreover, 1,4-dioxane was present in drinking water samples from river bank filtration, which demonstrates its persistence in the aquatic environment and its low degradation potential during bank filtration and subsequent water treatment. Furthermore, this was the first study that focused primarily on identifying sources of glymes in surface waters. Glymes find a widespread use in industrial sectors, hence establishing their origin in the surface water is difficult (as with 1,4-dioxane). In this work, a gas desulphurization process was identified to be a dominating source of glyme pollution in the Oder River.
Transylvanian Saxons' migration from Romania to Germany: the formation of a 'return' diaspora?
Lucia Diana Paul
- Processes and patterns of migration on a global scale have changed in profound ways during the last two decades (Smith and King, 2012). In the European context, this is exemplified by transformations to the traditional mobility patterns from East to West Europe (Koser and Lutz, 1998), with migrants more likely to be involved in temporary circular and transnational mobility (Favell, 2008). Since the end of the Second World War, historical and political events in Europe have facilitated the mobility of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe to Germany. Subsequently, the fall of the Iron Curtain has permitted unrestrained East-West movements, which resulted in mass migrations towards the West and diaspora fragments in the East. However, after settlement in the West, ethnic Germans have also been absorbed within wider temporary and transnational movements (Koser, 2007). Within this context, this thesis examines the post-migratory lives of three generations of Transylvanian Saxons in Germany by exploring the cultural, social, economic and political dimensions of this community. This thesis aims to contribute to on-going academic debates about diasporas by explicitly responding to Hoerder s (2002) call for more studies on ethnic German diasporas. It shows that Transylvanian Saxons, who relocated to the ancestral homeland, do not disrupt identities and lives forged in diaspora, but rather, they negotiate complex identities and belongings in relation to both home and homeland . It reveals a double diaspora and the necessity to perceive identity and diaspora as dynamic processes and constantly evolving in relation to time, space and place. This double diasporic allegiance in the case of the Transylvanian Saxons suggests interrogating the formation of a return diaspora and its importance for processes of international migration.
A linguistic approach to intuition in translation
- In literary translation 'correctness' is rarely ratified by linguistic rules; it is more often a question of what a sensitive translator feels to be correct. Intuition will therefore play a major part. This intuition is seen here neither as instinctive reaction prompted by experience, nor as native competence, but as an inquiring, self-moderating influence inspired by the language itself. It is treated in this respect as an informed intuition, that is, as having a linguistic base for sensitive judgement. This assumes that the literary translator is both a creative writer and his own critical reader as well as a fine judge of language potential. This line is applied to translating meaning and sense, transferring the very language, imitating the form and style, re-creating the features, and above all, to capturing those unique qualities of the original. After dealing with word-accuracy, the question of literary input demanded by form and style is examined. The treatment of language used for effect features in a section on Kafka. The merits and the problems of translating dialect as dialect for its own sake are looked at closely and in a positive way as are the possibilities of reproducing 'oddities' of language. The immense task of translating the language of Joyce ('Ulysses ') with all its vagaries and skilful manipulation of words is examined for the possibility of providing an accurate copy. The ultimate test of reproducing a uniqueness of artistic creation together with the profound thought which inspired it, is reserved for a section on Hopkins. While it is recognized that, owing to the constrictions imposed by the extreme and sensitive use of language, no translation can fully include all that there is in his poems, it might be possible to capture enough of their essence to give an impression of a 'German' Hopkins at work. A major objective throughout is the establishment of a linguistic base for the part played by intuition in literary translation.
Open heavy flavor and other hard probes in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions
- In this thesis hard probes are studied in the partonic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to MultiParton Scatterings). Employing Monte Carlo techniques, this model describes the 3+1 dimensional evolution of the quark gluon plasma phase in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions by propagating all particles in space and time and carrying out their collisions according to the Boltzmann equation. Since hard probes are produced in hard processes with a large momentum transfer, the value of the running coupling is small and their interactions should be describable within perturbative QCD (pQCD). This work focuses on open heavy flavor, but also addresses the suppression of light parton jets, in particular to highlight differences due to the mass. For light partons, radiative processes are the dominant contribution to their energy loss. For heavy quarks, we show that also binary interactions with a running coupling and an improved Debye screening matched to hard-thermal-loop calculations play an important role. Furthermore, the impact of the mass in radiative interactions, prominently named the dead cone effect, and the interplay with the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal (LPM) effect are studied in great detail. Since the transport model BAMPS has access to all medium properties and the space time information of heavy quarks, it is the ideal tool to study the dissociation and regeneration of J/psi mesons, which is also investigated in this thesis.
Dünne Schichten und Einkristalle neuer organischer Ladungstransferkomplexe
- In dieser Arbeit wurden eine Reihe neuer organischer Ladungstransfer (CT)-Verbindungen in Form von Einkristallen und Dünnschichten synthetisiert und grundlegend charakterisiert.
Für die Synthese kamen verschiedene bekannte und bislang unbekannte Donor- und Akzeptormoleküle zum Einsatz. Während einige bekannte Materialien wie TTF und TCNQ kommerziell erworben werden konnten, bestand im Rahmen der Kollaboration mit dem MPI für Polymerforschung zudem Zugang zu mehreren neuen Molekülen wie TMP und HATCN, die besonders mit Blick auf die Möglichkeit zur Dünnschichtpräparation ausgewählt wurden. Auf dieser Grundlage konnten zum einen mittels verschiedener Varianten der Lösungszüchtung erfolgreich neue CT-Komplexe als Einkristalle gezüchtet werden. Dabei kamen mehrere unterschiedliche Lösungsmittel zur Anwendung, die z.T. auch die gezielte Synthese bestimmter Kristallphasen erlaubten. Zum zweiten gelang die Präparation eines Teils dieser Systeme als Dünnschicht über die Methode der Molekularstrahldeposition mit verschiedenen Isolatoren wie SiO2 als Substratmaterial. Hierbei wurde zum Teil zuvor gezüchtetes Material eingesetzt, zum Teil entstand die neue Verbindung erst über diesen Prozess.
Die Proben der neuen Verbindungen wurden zunächst mittels verschiedener Methoden morphologisch und kristallographisch untersucht. Die Kristallzüchtung lieferte in vielen Fällen eine gute Kristallqualität, die sowohl für die Strukturbestimmung als auch die späteren elektrischen Messungen ausreichend war. Die Kristallstruktur konnte für mehrere neue Systeme ermittelt werden und ergab in allen Fällen eine Anordnung mit gemischten Donor-Akzeptor-Stapeln. Für die präparierten Dünnschichten konnte bei einem Großteil der Verbindungen gemäß der Untersuchungen mittels Röntgendiffraktion die gleiche(n) kristalline(n) Struktur(en) wie in den Einkristallen festgestellt werden. Es ließen sich zwei wesentliche Beobachtungen machen: a) Die Morphologie der Schichten besitzt eine ausgeprägte Tendenz zu rauem Inselwachstum; b) In praktisch allen Fällen bilden sich innerhalb der Schicht mindestens zwei stabile CT-Phasen parallel. Beide Verhaltensweisen traten nahezu unabhängig von Substrat, dessen Temperatur, Ausgangszustand (Material vorreagiert oder nicht) und Depositionstemperatur auf.
Die elektronischen Transportmessungen bestanden primär aus temperaturabhängigen Messungen
der elektrischen Leitfähigkeit, während Feldeffektmessungen mit organischen Transistorstrukturen
lediglich den Charakter einer Grundsteinlegung für tiefergehende Untersuchungen mit optimierten Schichten hatten. Die Kryostat-Messungen bis hinunter zu rund 1,5 Kelvin zeigten bei keiner der Verbindungen ein klares Anzeichen für einen Phasenübergang. Die absoluten Werte der Leitfähigkeit bei Raumtemperatur passten qualitativ zu der typischen Erwartung an ein gemischt gestapeltes CT-System, nämlich ein halbleitendes oder isolierendes Verhalten, was durch das arrhenius-artige Temperaturverhalten auch bestätigt wurde.
Dielektrische Messungen mit Kondensatorstrukturen wurden für die neuen Systeme TMP-TCNQ
und ET-DTF in der Dünnschichtform vorgenommen. Im Vordergrund stand dabei die Suche nach neuen Verbindungen, die einen neutral-ionischen Phasenübergang zeigen, der sich im Idealfall durch eine starke, peakförmige Anomalie in der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Dielektrizitätskonstanten bemerkbar machen sollte. Während sich in TMP-TCNQ keinerlei Hinweise auf einen Übergang zeigten, lieferte ET-DTF einen Verlauf, der einen strukturellen
Übergang andeutet, dessen Identität aber noch ungeklärt ist.
Zur Ergänzung wurden mit Hilfe mehrerer Kooperationspartner weitere Untersuchungen zwecks
Charakterisierung der neuen CT-Systeme vorgenommen. Die Bestimmung des Ladungstransfergrades δ mittels IR-Absorption lieferte im Wesentlichen eine Bestätigung der Beobachtung, dass die inspizierten Verbindungen gemischt gestapelte Systeme halbleitender oder
isolierender Natur sind, da δ nur geringe Werte von max. ca. 0,2 zeigte, die für solche Systeme
typisch sind. In ähnlicher Weise bestätigten Bandstruktur-Rechnungen dieses Verhalten, da die Bänder allgemein nur eine eher geringe elektronische Bandbreite zeigten. Zudem ergab sich für die trikline Phase von ET-DTF und das System TMP-F4TCNQ eine deutliche Anisotropie hinsichtlich der Dispersion, da diese erheblich verstärkt entlang der zur Stapelachse des Systems korrespondierenden Richtung des k-Raumes auftritt, also (im Einklang mit den Leitfähigkeitsdaten) 1D-Charakter besitzt. Ein weiterer Beitrag zur Suche nach neuen NI-Verbindungen entstand durch Messung der charakteristischen CT-Absorption einiger Systeme im optischen bzw. IR-Spektrum. In Kombination mit den Werten für Ionisierungsenergie und Elektronenaffinität konnte eine Einordnung in das von Torrance et al. entwickelte, sog. V-Diagramm vorgenommen werden, mit dessen Hilfe sich aussichtsreiche Molekülkombinationen für ein neues NI-System eruieren ließen.
The phylogeny of the genus Gazella and the phylogeography and population genetics of arabian species
- Biodiversity is caused by a fundamental evolutionary process: speciation. When species can spread into new habitats and are allowed to colonize new ecological niches, speciation can become accelerated and is then called radiation. This can happen, e.g., when formerly separated land masses become connected. A prime example of such a scenario is the Arabian Peninsula that connects Africa and Asia since the Oligocene (approx. 30 Ma ago). Since then, the peninsula promoted several faunal exchanges between both continents. The mammalian genus Gazella is an excellent candidate for investigating this faunal exchange. Species are distributed on both, the African and Asian continent as well as on the Arabian Peninsula that is located in between. The aim of my thesis was to cast new light on the evolution and speciation of the genus and, furthermore, to evaluate the currently problematic taxonomy to infer suggestions for improved conservation actions for threatened gazelle species. Therefore, I investigated the taxon Gazella genetically and identified factors that promoted the speciation of this diverse genus. I assessed intraspecific genetic variability for species that inhabited the Arabian Peninsula to infer the past demography of those species and to estimate the history of species divergence and past population parameters.
In the first part of my thesis I inferred a mitochondrial phylogeny based on cytochrome b gene sequences using samples of all nine extant species of Gazella and also of closely related taxa (chapter 2). Besides the monophyly of the genus Gazella two reciprocally monophyletic clades were detected that evolved in allopatry: one predominantly African and one predominantly Asian clade. Within both clades species pairs could be inferred with species being ecologically adapted to different habitats: one species is a desert-dweller (probably the ancestral character state combination), while the other one is adapted to rather mountainous and humid habitats. These adaptations also correlate with the behavior of the species with the mountainous forms being sedentary, territorial and living in small groups and the desert forms being migratory, non-territorial and living in larger herds.
The second part of my thesis focuses on the Arabian gazelle species. In a study about G. subgutturosa I could show that the Arabian form G. marica (sand gazelle)—previously recognized as a subspecies of G. subgutturosa—is genetically distinct from the nominate form (chapter 3). Moreover, a phylogenetic tree based on cytochrome b gene sequences revealed a polyphyly of G. subgutturosa and G. marica with sand gazelles being more closely related to G. leptoceros and G. cuvieri of North Africa. Consequently, I suggested the restoration to full species level for G. marica corroborating earlier conservation practices of breeding both taxa separately in captivity.
In case of G. dorcas such a genetic differentiation could not be detected (chapter 4). Despite the large distribution range from Mali in the west to Saudi Arabia in the east only low genetic variation was detectable in mitochondrial sequence data. Statistically parsimony network analyses revealed pronounced haplotype sharing across regions. Using a coalescence approach I observed a steep population decline that started about 25,000 years ago and which is still ongoing. The decline could be correlated with human hunting activities in the Sahara. Hence, hunting of G. dorcas (already in ancient times) had a much larger impact on gazelle populations than previously thought and even led to the extinction of the Arabian form of G. dorcas.
In chapter 5 of my thesis I provided a rigorous test to genetically distinguish between the potential species G. gazella and G. arabica. Previously recognized as a single species mitochondrial sequence analyses provided first hints for the separation of both taxa. But without the investigation of nuclear loci the observed pattern could also be the result of male biased dispersal combined with female philopatry. Therefore, I amplified mitochondrial sequence markers and nuclear microsatellite loci for both taxa and found support for the earlier view of two separate species. No signs of recurrent gene flow could be detected between neighboring populations of G. arabica and G. gazella. The split of both species could be estimated one million years ago and the recommendation of breeding both taxa separately in captivity for conservation purposes is fully justified.
Several populations of G. arabica suffer from a severe decline. In chapter 6 I asked whether the population occurring on the Farasan archipelago—being at stable individual numbers for decades—may serve as potential source for future reintroduction on the Arabian mainland, although the gazelles show a reduced body size. Analyzing the genetic differentiation of Farasan gazelles, a genetic cluster could be inferred being endemic to the archipelago. However, only approx. 70% of Farasan individuals were assigned to this specific cluster, while the others showed at least intermediate or even complete assignment to the mainland cluster. This indicates ongoing introgression that is probably mediated by human translocations of gazelles from and onto the islands. Considering the uniform dwarfism of Farasan gazelles, reasons for the smaller body size might be direct consequences of resource limitations, i.e., phenotypic plasticity. If the population decline on the mainland will hold on Farasan gazelles could serve as stocks for future reintroductions.